Muslim holy books
The Qu'ran is the last
in Islam and is called
(Mother of Books). Muslims believe that the revelations given to put right any errors in the previous books. They were a message not just for Arabs but for all of humanity. All the parts of the Qu'ran were written down during the Prophet's lifetime. They were carefully checked several times. The Qu'ran exists today in its original form, unaltered.
All the parts of Qu'ran is the greatest of miracles, it is the exact message of God and its unaltered. They try to encourage all believers to study it in Arabic, the original language. This is because all translations differ and none can give the exact meaning of the original.
- the psalms given to Dawud (David).
- the revelations to Musa (the Torah). The Tawrah is not the same as the present Torah of the Jews. They believe that many comments, opinions, legends and other things were added by editors and it is difficult to get to the truth.
- the scrolls given to Ibrahim.
- the teachings given to Isa (the Gospels). Muslims believe the Injil is not the same as the Gospels that Christians use in Church.
Muslims believe the books and teachings were not preserved in their original form. Sahifa was lost completely and Zabur, Tawrah and Injil were changed in various ways.
Muslims accept Christian and Jewish scriptures as edited versions of the Revelation and they believe the guidance given cannot always be trusted.
Sunni and Shi'a Muslims
The Sunni insist that the Prophet intended that elections should take place to ensure the best person would succeed. They say that is wrong to claim there is a family line of rulers, like kings. The Shi'ite minority are very devoted to their traditions, sometimes fanatically so.
The number of Shi'ites is increasing as people in developing countries react with the moral failure of the modern world. Shi'ism is now the state religion in Iran, Yemen, Iraq, Pakistan and Lebanon.
Others claimed that those who followed the
Way of the Prophet
or Sunnah (Sunni Muslims) were true Muslims. About 90% of Islam's followers are Sunni Muslims. They believe in the Qu'ran and Hadiths and the laws based upon them and believe Abu Bakar, Muhammad's closest companion was his successor. .
Muslims who support the descendants of Muhammad became known as
or The Party of Ali and are now called Shi'ites (Shi'a Muslims). They believed Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law was his successor. They did not accept the first three
and said Ali was really the first, followed by the Prophet's grandsons , Hasan and Husayn.
For Shi'a Muslims following the example of Muhammad is more important than the teachings of the Qu'ran because Muhammad has a divine link to God. For Sunnis on the other hand, the Qu'ran is more important because the Qu'ran is supposedly the direct word of God and a primary source of God's words. The Qu'ran has never changed whereas if something is told to someone else it could be changed.
is the means by which God communicates with human beings. A
is a prophet. When God communicates directly to a prophet's mind, this is called a
Muslims believe in a chain of prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Elias, Jonah, John the Baptist, and Jesus (pbuh).
God's final message to man, a reconfirmation of the eternal message and a summing-up of all that has gone before was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) through Gabriel.
Transcendence is the aspect of a god's nature and power which is completely independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws. This is contrasted with immanence, where God is said to be fully present in the physical world.
"Then, to Allah belongs [all] praise – Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth, Lord of the worlds. And to Him belongs [all] superiority within the heavens and the earth, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. "
"God does not change the condition of people [for the worst] unless they change what is in themselves." Allah has the knowledge of all that will happen but Muslims believe that this doesn't stop human beings making free choices.
also known as Qudr is the idea that God knows and determines everything that will happen in the universe.