Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells and have a “true” nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and rod-shaped chromosomes.
The nucleus houses the cell’s DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes.
Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production; the endoplasmic reticulum modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids; and the golgi apparatus is where the sorting of lipids and proteins takes place.
Peroxisomes carry out oxidation reactions that break down fatty acids and amino acids and detoxify poisons; vesicles and vacuoles function in storage and transport.
Animal cells have a centrosome and lysosomes while plant cells do not.
Plant cells have a cell wall, a large central vacuole, chloroplasts, and other specialized plastids, whereas animal cells do not.