FEUDALISIM: it was the political, economic and social system which…
FEUDALISIM: it was the political, economic and social system which characterised Western Europe during most Middle Ages. It is how people lived and worked in Europe for centuries.
Is divided into three ages :
Early Middle Ages: 8th - 10th century / Temprana Edad Media
High Middle Ages: 11th - 13th century / Alta Edad Media
Late Middle Ages: 14th - 15th / Baja Edad Media
The main ideas of Feudalism are:
Kings lose their power and therefore become weaker, because the nobles are as powerful as the king. KINGS ARE NOT STRONG.
Economy based upon agriculture. = NO CITIES = NO TRADE (until the 11/12th centuries)
A new society based on relationships of dependence between people.
Enormous influence of the Christian religion. Everybody was a Christian in Europe (apart from Muslims in Al Andalus and Jews, living in the ghettos/juderías in a Christian city)
The main artistic styles were Romanesque and Gothic.
A drakkar at the Oslo Museum.
There were many independent kingdoms.
Kings considered that the origin of their power was holy (that they had been chosen by God. “It was like this until the French Revolution, in 1789”). Therefore, their power was great DE IURE because:
1.They led the army
2.Legislated (made the laws /LEX: law in Latin)
3.They were the supreme judges.
THE KING WAS THE FIRST AMONG EQUALS
THE KING WAS THE “PRIMUS INTER PARES” (in latin)
This means that the nobles and the clergy (the church) were very independent, and, what is more important, the kings were WEAK.
FEUDAL ECONOMY: in Middle Ages, being rich meant having land. The land was divided into MANORS (FEUDOS in Spanish). This manors belonged to the king or to the Nobles or Clergy/ Ecclesiastics, because they had been granted by the king to his vassals (vasallos).
The parts of the MANOR (feudo): 1.DEMESNE (RESERVA SEÑORIAL): this land included:
the castle, the best farmland, the best pastures, the best forests for gathering wood and for hunting.
IMPORTANT: these lands are only for the lord who exploits them directly.
2.DEPENDENT HOLDING (Mansos): the lands granted by the lord to the FREE peasants (not serfs)
IN EXCHANGE FOR:
PART OF THEIR HARVEST (cosecha) AND ANIMALS.
SOME DAYS’ WORK IN THE DEMESNE: ploughing (arar) in spring, and harvesting in autumn. (For instance, harvesting grapes after the summer).
FREE SERVICES: domestic work (help in the kitchens of the castle), construction (repairs in the castle), serving the lord, accompanying the lord into the forest, cleaning the forest, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc…
IN ADDITION, peasants paid el DIEZMO (tithe) to the church, the tenth part of the harvest, animals, etc…
THE MANOR WAS SELF-SUFFICIENT (everything was made or provided on it = NO TRADE)