Honors World History Unit 1 Conflict Reform and the Birth of the Modern…
Honors World History Unit 1 Conflict Reform and the Birth of the Modern World
The Middle Ages
A type of government based on land control and military loyalty.
Land is divided into manors
A large area of land that centered on agriculture and was a community in midevil Europe.
Social organization in manors.
Creates the laws for the Manor.
Divide the manor and collect taxes.
Manage the daily business of the Manor.
Forms the manor. These people pay the taxes.
Enforce the laws and protects the Manor
The Black Death
A bacteria disease
Attacks the immune system.
Spread rapidly throughout Europe and was very deadly,
Originated from Asia
Misguided efforts to stop the disease
Ringing Church bells
Burning cloves and scents
Causes of the Reformation
Corruption: The church becomes corrupt, Indulgences.
Loss of faith in the church: the church failed to change and they lost help.
New scientific discoveries: The ne discoveries contradict the church teachings.
Was a German lawyer but decided to become a monk.
Wrote the '95 Theses" which is a list of things Luther disagreed with about the Catholic Church. This list started the Reformation.
Was called before the Church courts because of writing the '95 Theses".
He stood up for his views and then had to go into hiding.
Results of the Reformation
Breakdown in government
Peace of Augsburg
Agreed to allow each European state to govern their own religions.
Rediscovered Greek/Roman art
Began in Italy which had a rich history of the Greeks and Romans.
Eventually spread to all corners of Europe
Famous artists: Michelangelo, Raphael, Da Vinci, Machiavelli, Shakespeare.
Weakening of feudalism
Introduced a new way of thinking known as Humanism
"Tapering off" of the Black Death
Rise of Multiple Absolute Monarchs Caused by the Church losing power, growing violence, and growth of modern European countries.
Major power of that time
Created by Confucius
Also believed in Ancestor worship and the Golden Rule
Chinese emperors used this philosophy to be "Mandate of Heaven" A fatherly figure to citizens
A cycle known as the Dynastic Cycle started with a new emperor to conquering new countries to falling out of line with God and repeat.
Still practiced today
Shoguns fought for control over Japan as commander of the Forces. Now an honorary title used today.
Before shoguns there was no real government, people hired samurais for protection, and there were many individual lords and peasants.
Individual lords were called daimyos. They built castles and had Geisha's.
The samurai used katana's- type of sword, very strong- and performed Seppuku or "Ritual Suicide".
peasants were dirt poor.
Civil war among the feudal daimyos.
Chinese attempt to attack via sea.
Kamikaze winds save Japanese.
Eventually Tokugawa leyasu united Japan
His ancestors would rule for the next 300 years.
Europeans in the 1500's shipwrecked and Japanese welcomed them and their technologies.
"Closed Country Policy" (1639) because new tech was interrupting their traditions.
Czars of Russia
Separated by monarch and nobility
Nobility = boyars
Monarch = Czars (rulers)
Ivan the Terrible
Legacy: development of absolute rule, need for secret police, and practice of "purges"
Peter the Great
Loves European culture
Legacy: modern army, modern economy, more trade/ money, status as a world power
Religious warriors led by Osman
Had a feared military and thriving arts
Sultans ruled as military commander and political leader
Janissaries were Sultans bodyguards: captured Christian children, converted to Islam, and trained soldiers
Rose to higher positions in government (first western "bureaucracy")
Suleiman the Lawgiver
His law code remains the basis of Turkey's constitution today.
Conquered many areas: Africa and Europe
very tolerant of other cultures
Paranoia and corruption brought them down eventually during WW1
One country they had trouble with because of crazy ruler. Vlad the Impaler
Anglo-Saxons introduce the first kings.
Vikings invade, Alfred the Great leads the resistance.
Harold II has no heir and William I assumes rule.
William I becomes William the Conqueror in Battle of Hastings
William expands England monarchs power
William rewards soldiers with land: soldiers become nobles.
Nobles create Magna Carta
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