Group 4 : Gait Analysis (Normal & Pathological) without Orthosis (GAIT…
Group 4 : Gait Analysis (Normal & Pathological) without Orthosis
Gait Analysis in Stroke Patient
Gait Analysis in Normal person
comparison normal and pathological gait
- a rhythmic and characterized by alternating propulsive and retropulsive motions of the lower extremities
According to "Ranchos Los Amigos (RLA) , California " task involves in walking :
single limb support
swing limb advance
- a deviation from normal walking (gait)
Significant gait differences included asymmetry in step length and increased step width
It may be caused by pain, joint muscle ROM limitation, muscular weakness, neurological involvement, length leg discrepancy
decreased in duration of stance phase of the affected limb (unable of weight bear due to pain)
there is a lack of weight shift laterally over the stance limb and also to keep weight off the involved limb
decrease in stance phase in affected side will result in a decrease in swing phase in sound limb
GRF for normal gait
the ground reaction force (GRF) passes anterior to the hip and knee until just before toe off
produces an extensor force reducing which acts to reduce the work required from quadriceps during the stance phase
during terminal stance and preswing the force passes behind the hip and knee and acts as a flexor so reducing the work requirement for hip and knee flexion
-Occurs when the contralateral foot passes the stance foot and the body's center of gravity is at its highest possible.
-Occurs as the heel loses contact with the ground and pushoff is initiated via the triceps surae muscles, which plantarflex the ankle.
-Plantar surface of the foot touches the ground
-Terminated the stance phase as foot leaves the ground
Initial contact (Heel Strike)
-Initiates the gait cycle and represent the point at which the body's center of gravity is at its lowest position
-Occurs when the foot passes directly beneath the body, coincidental with midstance for the other foot
-Describes the action of the muscles as they slow the leg and stabilize the foot in preparation for the next heel strike.
-Begins as soon as the foot leaves the ground and the subject activates the hip flexor muscles to accelerate the leg forward
GRF for crouched gait
crouch gait, a common condition among children with cerebral palsy, decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait
excessive knee flexion increases the energy requirements of walking which can deteriorate joints and lead to chronic knee pain
Ground Reaction Force
Newton's third law states that every action must have an equal and opposite reaction, therefore the downward force passing through the foot when it bears weight must be matched by an equal and opposite upward force.