Geography Urban Issues-paper 2 (Urban Issues (UK Cities - (Cities have…
Geography Urban Issues-paper 2
UK Cities -
Many coastal areas have attracted human settlement - especially where there are sheltered bays and river estuaries suitable for building harbours. Key ports have grown into major cities.
Most urban areas developed in lowland areas - easy to build and have a milder climate.
Upland regions such as the north of Scotland are sparsely populated - they are difficult to farm and have few natural resources.
Mineral wealth has often led to rapid population growth because this was where industries developed. Many cities developed on major coal fields e.g. Leeds.
Cities have different zones
Central business district
Rural urban fringe
Change in UK Cities -
Changes create opportunities and challenges -
3)CBDs have been redeveloped.
4)Innovative transport solutions for congestion problems.
2)Redevelopment presents opportunities for new investment such as Hotels, restaurants and entertainment.
5)Green space importance has been realised by the planners.
1)Immigrant communities were attracted by low cost inner city housing. Many UK cities are now very multicultural - offering a range of food and festivals e.g. the Notting Hill Carnival.
2)Inequalities can lead to social unrest like health care and education.
3)High demand for housing means estates go onto rural green land.
1)Industrial decline has caused a decrease in wealth, people moved away leaving derelict buildings that became a target for crime.
What the industrial revolution did -
3)Lots of people moved to the suburbs, and the inner city areas and CBDs declined.
4)Regeneration projects have helped to make city centres more attractive again,
2)Followed by industrial decline - many industries relocated oversea to the real-urban fringe.
1)During the Industrial Revolution there was growth of manufacturing industries and rapid urbanisation.
Change in UK Cities - Case study
Liverpool is a Port City in North west England -
4)Ships aloud people to come and remain in Liverpool setting up there own communities such as China town.
5)The decline of the docks in 1960s led to 350 factories closing.
3)Immigration has played a large part by 1850 25% of Liverpool's population were Irish immigrants.
6)Liverpool has attracted huge investment for regeneration.
2)It also developed a thriving manufacturing industry, with large factories employing many people.
1)Developed on the River Mersey estuary and became and important port for cotton, sugar and slave ships.
Social,Economic and Environmental Opportunities.
2)Dock has been restored to include shops restaurants and museums e.g. the Beatles story. The Echo area sport and concert venue was built. £1 billion was spent regenerating the city centre.
3)Employment - the tourism and service sectors now offer many jobs. Development of the Baltic triangle area conversion has made creative areas such as art, film making and digital design.
1)Cultrial mix has provided ethnic diversity bring a range of food and festival such as Liverpool's popular China town.
4)Integrated transport systems with new bus, train and ferry networks. A prepaid card can be used on all three making it easier.
1)Urban greening is forming part if the city's regeneration. Planners are trying to increase and preserve open spaces such as public parks and gardens.
2) More cycles and pedestrian routes are being created and wasteland is being converted into usable parks.
Environmental Challenges -
2)Growth of city and movement of people is putting pressure on greenfield sites, destroying natural habitats.
3)Waste disposal is a problem as the city grows.
1)Derelict buildings are now targets for graffiti and vandalism.
Social and Economic Challenges -
3)Some inner city redeveloped clearing existing housing and putting too expensive houses for the people who were forced out.
4)Many children in deprived areas leave with qualifications.
2)Regeneration in some parts has lead to increase inequality.
5)Unhealthy lifestyles drinking, smoking and poor diets is common is deprived areas.
1)Industrial decline in the 20th century left much of Liverpool's inner city very deprived.
Urban Sprawl -
As Liverpool has grown it has sprawled outwards affecting the rural urban fringe, means open spaces are lost and ecosystems damaged or destroyed, out of town developments are cheap but large areas of rural land are lost can lead to air and noise pollution and traffic congestion.
Commuter settlements are places where rural urban fringe where the majority of the population leaves down to go to work. Causes challenges such as house prices increasing, people spend money where they work not leave. Increasing pollution, traffic congestion and parking problems.
Sustainable Urban Living -
Freiburg is located in Germany (southwest), near the French east border and the Switzerland north) Gokmanhay.450 south west of Berlin.
What makes Freiburg a sustainable -
6)Conserving the cultural, historical and environmental sites 7 buildings.
7)Making sinks for the disposal of toxic chemicals.
5)Keeping city wastes within the capacity of local rivers and oceans.
8)Providing people with clothing,
4)Giving all residents a home.
9)Allowing businesses to expand quickly to provide much needed jobs.
3)Reducing the use of fossil fuels - rethinking transport options.
10)Involving local communities and proving employment.
2)Recycling water supplies.
11)Minimising he use of greenfield sites.
1)Providing green spaces.
12)Giving fee contraception to reduce the birth rate.
Social, Economic, Environmental planning
Economic Planning -
3)Many jobs in solar panels manufacturing and research.
4)10,000 people employed in 1500 environmental businesses.
5)1000 employed in proving advanced solar cells.
Environmental Planning -
2)88% packing waste recycled.
3)359 community collection points for recycling.
1)Reduced annual waste.
Social Planning -
3)Invest in renewable energy resources e.g. 5mil in 9 windmills.
4)Investors receive free football season tickets.
2)Views of children.
5)Rewards for people who compost.
Rural to Urban Migration -
Urbanisation is also caused by natural increase. Natural increase is when the birth rates higher than the death rate, so the population increases.
It is usually the younger people that move to the cities for work. These people then have children in the cities which increases the proportion of the population living in urban areas. There's also better health care in urban areas meaning the people again increasing the proportion of people in urban areas.
Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the cities. The rate of this is affected by push factors( factors encouraging people to leave the area) and pull factors( factors bringing people to the area). Its usually a combination of both that encourage people to move.
High rates of urbanisation are leading to growth of megacities.
A megacity is an urban area with more than 10 million people living there
There are now 34 megacities, 2/3 are in LICS and NEES.
Push and pull factors -
Mechanisation of agricultural equipment- farms require fewer workers so there are fewer jobs.
Desertification can make land unproductive so people can no longer support themselves.
Natural disasters e.g floods and earthquakes, can damage property and farmland, which people cant afford to repair.
Conflict or war can also cause people to flee their homes.
There are more jobs in urban areas that are often better paid
Access to better health care and education.
To join other family members who have already moved.
People think they will have a better quality of life
Urbanisation is happening faster in poorer countries
4)HICS are more economically developed( Japan and Germany).Urbanisation happens quicker in HICS than NEES and LICS e.g industrial revolution and most of the population now already live in urban areas.
5)HICS have a very slow rate of urban growth.
Those desiring a better quality of life are moving from overcrowded cities to rural areas.
Good transport and communication networks mean people can live in rural areas and commute to cities or work from home.
3)The rate of urbanisation differs between richer countries and poorer countries
6) LICS are less economically developed(Ethiopia, Nepal and Afghanistan) Not many live in urban areas, meaning in general the fastest rate of urbanisation is in LICS.
2)its happening all over the world. More than 50% of the worlds population live in urban areas(3.9billion).This is increasing every day.
7) NEES are those who's economic development is increasing rapidly(Brazil, China, Russia, India). The percentage of the population living in urban areas varies. Some NEES such as Thailand, Nigeria and China are undergoing rapid urban growth.
1)Uanisation is the growth in the proportion of a countries population living in urban areas.
Traffic Management -
Using Public Transport Reduces Traffic Congestion -
3)Self service bicycles.
4)Electronic oyster cards allow travel easier.
2)London's underground system takes 3 million passengers off roads everyday.
1)The dockland light railway in east London is used by 110 million a year.
Traffic Congestion is a Big Problem -
Economic Problems -
Congestion can make people late for work or meetings and delay deliveries by lories, which causes companies to lose money.
Social Problems -
There is a higher chance of accidents. Congestion also causes frustration for drivers, health issues for pedestrians and cyclists and can delay emergency vehicles.
Environmental Problems -
lots of traffic increases air pollution and the release of greenhouse gases contributes to climate change.
Urban Growth - Opportunities and Challenges
The Favela-Bairro project helps poor people in Rio de Janeiro's Favelas -
Social improvements: there are now day care centres for children education classes and services to help people with drug and alcohol addictions.
2) The Favela-Bairro project ran from 1995-2008 and involved 253 thousand people in 73 favelas. It has led to:
1) Rio is in south east Brazil. It has more than 600 squatter settlements( Favelas) . Housing one-fifth of the cities population (more than one million people)
Often the poorest people in urban areas are the worst affected by the problems of urban growth. Urban planning scheme can help to reduce the impact of these problems and improve the quality of life for the urban poor.
Economic improvements: the project is helping people get legal ownership of their properties and running training schemes to help people find better jobs.
Environmental improvements: wooden buildings are being replaced with brick buildings, streets have been widened and paved, and there are now rubbish collection services.
It also Brings Challenges -
Environmental challenges -
4) The road system may not be able to cope with all the vehicles and congestion causes increased greenhouse gas emissions
3) Sewage and toxic chemicals can get into rivers, harming wildlife.
If cities grow rapidly waste disposal services sewage systems and environmental regulations for factories cant keep pace with the growth.
2) Air pollution comes from burning fuel, vehicle exhaust fumes and factories.
1) Rubbish often isn't collected or it may end up in big rubbish heaps. This can damage the environment, especially if its toxic.
Social and Economic challenges -
There can be high levels of unemployment and crime
4) People may not have access to education so they are unable to develop the skills needed to get better jobs
3) The unclean conditions and lack of access to medical services mean people often have poor health.
2) People don't often have access to basic services, e.g running clean water, proper sewers or electricity.
1) They are badly built and overcrowded.
Many people move to the city from rural areas and up in squatter settlements( slums)- illegally built settlements in and around the city by those who cant afford proper housing.
Urban Growth in NEES and LICS Create Opportunities -
Economic Opportunities -
Industries sell the goods they produce on the international market. Manufactured goods make greater profits than unprocessed good( agricultural products) so industrialised countries get wealthier.
As industries develop, more people move to urban areas to work in the factories- there are more jobs and better wages than in rural areas
The growth of urban industrial areas can increases economic development.
Social Opportunities -
There is also better access to resources such as a clean water supply and electricity.
There is better access to services e.g healthcare and education.