Digestive system and nutrition (Parts (Stomach (sphincters (pyloric…
Digestive system and nutrition
mucous membrane lining contain rugae
helps expand the stomach
receives food from the esophagus
food remains in your stomach for 1-4 hours
starts protein digestion
starts the chemical breakdown of fats
helps absorb iron
aids in the digestion of milk
only present in infants
dorsal to the trachea
peristalsis moves food toward the stomach
carries bolus to the stomach
recieves food from the stomach in the form of chime
divided into 3 sections
8 feet long
last 12 feet.
connects with the large intestine and the cecum
first 9-10 inches
this is where bile from the gallbladder and liver, and pancreatic juice enter through ducts.
1inch in diameter
20 feet long
Food bolus to the esophagus
When bolus swallowed, epiglottis closes to prevent food from entering the respitory tract
2incnes in diameter
five feet long
storage of the indigestible materials before eliminated in the body
synthesis and absorbtion of some b-complex and k vitamins
absorption of water and any remaining nutrients
transportation of waste products out of the alimentary canal
final section of the alimentary canal
where the appendix lies
Muscular organ that contains special receptors
Allow a person to taste
under te diaphragm
accessory organ for digestive system
stores sugar in the form of glucose
largest gland in the body
Special structures that physically break down food by chewing and grinding
under the liver
attached by connective tissue
stores and concentrates bile
bile needed to emulsify fats
small muscular sac
Receives food as it enters the body
Actions in the mouth
Broken down physically by teeth
Lubricated and partially digested by saliva
Food is tasted
fish shaped oragn, located behind the stomach
pancreatic juices to digest food
secteted into the blood stream
regulates burning of carbs to convert glucose to energy
Long muscular tube
Begins at the moth
Ends at the anus
acute inflammatin of the appendix, usually results from an obstruction and infection
signs and symptoms
generalized abdominal painthat later localizes to the LRQ, N/V, mild fever, and increased WBC.
if the appendix ruptures, the infectious material will go into the peritoneal cavity and cause peritonitis.
inflammation of the gallbladder
create gallstones from the crystalized cholesterol, bile salts and pile pigments
occur after eating fatty foods; indigestion,N/V, and pain that starts in under the ribs and radiates to the right shoulder
if it blocks the bile ducts, the gall bladder can rupture and cause peritonitis
chronic destruction of the liver cells accompanied by the formation of fibrous connective and scar tissue
hepatitis, bilr duct disease, chemical toxis, and malnutrition caused by alcolholism
liver enlargement,anemia, indigestion, nausea and edems n legs and feet, hematemesis(vommiting blood) nosebleeds, jaundice and ascites, diorientation, hallucinations, hepatic coma and death can occur
preventing further damage to the liver. avoid alcohol, get proper nutrition, vitamin supplements, diuretics, rest, infection prevention, and appropriate exersize.
fecal material remaining in the colon too long causing excessive reabsorbtionof water.
feces becomes too hard and dry and difficult to eliminate
poor bowel habits, chronic laxidive use, a diet low in fiber and certain digestive diseases.
high fiber diet, fluids, exercise
frequent watery stools
infection, stress, diet, and irratated colon and toxc substances
can be dangerous in infants and children becauase, of the excess fluid.
eliminatin the cause, replacing lost fluid and modifying diet
inflamationof the diverticula that form in the intestine and mucousal lining pushes through the surrouding muscle
fecal material and bacteria can get trapped, inflammation can occur, and can result in rupture in he peritonitis
abdominal pain, irregular bowel movements, flayus, constipation or diarrhea, abdominal distention, low grade fever and N/V.
antibiotics, stool softening medications, pain meds, high fiber diet, and in severe cases, sugery.
inflammation of mucosal membrane that lines the stomach
food poisoning,infection and toxins
abdominal cramping, nausea,vomitting,fever, diarrhea.
rest and increasefluid intake. somtimes antibiotics.
painful, dialated veins, of the rectum or the anus
straining, constipation, pressure, insufficient fluid intake, laxadive abuse, and prolonged sitting or standing.
itching, pain, bleeding
high fiber diet, increased fluid intake, stool softeners, sitz bath, warm moist compressions, and in some cases a hemmorrhoidectomy
viral inflammation of the liver
most benign form of hepititis
or serum hepititis is transmitted by bodily fluids including blood, serum saliva,urine, seman, vaginal secretions and breast milk
vaccine availible, more serious than A
spread through contact of blood or body fluids.
sharing needled, getting stuck with needle or sharp object, passing from mom to fetus during its birth
when an internal organ pushes trougha weakened area or natural opening in a body wall
heartburn, stomavh distention, chest pain and difficult swallowing.
bland diet, small frequent meals, staying upright after eating, surgical repair.
inflammation in the pancreas
excessive alcohol intake or blockage of pancreaticducts by gallstones
severe abdominal pain, which radiates to the back, N/V, and diaphoresis, and jundice
depends on the cause
inflammation of the abdominal peritoneal cavity, usually when a rupture of the intestines alllows the contents to to leak into the abdominal cavity
abdomial pain, distention, fever, N/V
antibiootics, and if nessasary surgical repair
open sore on the lining of the digestive tract
main cause is H. pylori, stomach acids, and digestive juices
burning pain, indigestion, hematemesis and bloody stools
antibiotics and somtimes surgery
severe inflammation of the colon, then the formation of ulcers and abcesses.
stress or food allergy or an autoimmune reaction
diarrhea, blood, pus and mucous in stool, weight loss, weak, abdominal pain, anmia, anorexia
peiods of remission and exacerbation are common