Solids (Crystalline - solids with a highly ordered composition of their…
- solids with a highly ordered composition of their parts (Zumdahl)
- a solid holding a single atom at each of the lattice
- Solids that are held together by covalent bonds.They have localized electrons and have a flixed geometric arrangement.
- networks of carbon atoms covalently bonded together in a continual structure
Diamond - each atom has four evenly distributed carbons bonded to in a tetrahedral fashion. They are often used on traditional wedding rings and drills for their high metling point
- a sheet of covalently bonded carbon atoms, stacked upon other sheets with no bonding between them. Graphite is very soft and is used in pencils. It has a very high melting point and electrical conductivity
- a ball of 60 covalently bonded carbon atoms in 5 atom rings. This structure has a high strength and in the future could be used to fortify textiles
Silicon Dioxide Networks
- It has a covalent structure . For silica, each silicon atom bonds to four oxygen atoms, meaning there is ratio of two oxygen atoms to one silicon atom. Silicon Dioxide is very hard and is found as quartz in granite. In sandstone, it is also the major compound.
- having an evenly distributed sea of electrons, it is held together by metallic bonding with the valence electrons spread throughout binding the
- The noble gasses which are filled by s and p valence orbitals are not very reactive. They are monatomic and only naturally exist in a gaseous state on Earth due to their extremely low solidifying point.
- solids that have ions on each of the points of the lattice points (Zumdahl)
- a solid with discrete covalently bonded molecules at its lattice points (Zumdahl). Atoms and molecules occupy the lattice points and Dipole-dipole attractions, London forces, and hydrogen bonding hold them together. Ex)Graphite
Graphite is held at it lattice points with London forces (Clark)
- solids with considerable disorder in their structures (Zumdahl)
Glass- an amorphous solid that is full of disorder and is more similar to a solution than a crystalline solid.
Soda-lime Silicate's components: SiO2, Na2O, CaO. It has an average chemical resistance and is used for food and beverage containers, windows, and lamp
Phosphate Glass's components: P2O5. It has a low chemical resistance (except a high one to hydrofluoric acid) and is used for bone scaffolds, optical fibers, and heat
Borosilicate's components: SiO2, B2O3. It has a high chemical resistance and is used for industrial equipment, exterior lighting, and laboratory and kitchen
- a substance that has a molecular structure consisting of a large number of similar units bonded together Examples:Rubber, Plastic
they are made up of amino acids and nucleic acids, both polymers of nucleotides,
which are composed of Nitrogen-containing bases, sugars, and phosphoric acids. Nucleic acids bring genetic information to cells.
- This is made of linear carbon atoms in its backbone. It can be used for car applications, plumbing, and hardware.