L3 Perception (Key issues:
ecological validity / cue predictive value
- ecological validity / cue predictive value
- utilisation of cues / cue confidence value
- functional validity
Credence attributes (EKO) are extremely ambiguous
● There just are no intrinsic cues
● So people have no clue – extrinsic cues are needed
Cue Ambiguity reduces Ecological Validity
Experience attributes (taste) are more ambiguous than
search attributes (size)
● Intrinsic cues are loosely related to the attribute
Proximal cues are indicators of distal phenomena
Some proximal cues are “better” indicators than others [higher
No proximal cue is 100% reliable
● And some cues are 100% unreliable
utilisation coefficient r (i,s)
Pragmatic perception follows a probabilistic strategy
● Making the most likely inference about the object
● Using some weighting according to assumed cue validity
● Being flexible to update the inference to changes in cues
● Mostly ‘recognition-based’ selection of cues
Perception is a process of ‘inferential decision making’
● ‘True state’ is inferred from selected sensory cues
● ‘Hypothesised reality’ is tested against further cues
Selective cue utilisation
Any organism uses a functional strategy to perception
● Make categorical inferences about distal objects
● Focus selectively on stereotypical cues
● Infer reality relative to salient (usage) context
‘Fitness for use’ is inferred from sensory cues
● And sometimes inferred too eagerly .......
achievement index r (Ye,Ys)
To what degree does the perceptual response match the distal variable?
● What do we see?
● What meaning do we give to what we see?
● How do we react to what we see?
● What was there to see in the first place?
What is the FINAL test whether what we see is what there is?
- can be ascertained on the basis of actual experience with the product
- e.g., cleaning powder of a detergent, fuel consumption of a car, and beauty of a painting.
- cannot be ascertained even after normal use for a long time and/or without consulting an expert
- durability of a car, harmfulness of cigarettes, and the financial security of investments.
Value Based Quality is:
- a) An evaluative judgement (preference)
- b) On subject – object interaction (comparitive; personal; situational)
- c) In a consumption context (rather than in the acquisition)
- Informational stimuli / search attributes: can be ascertained prior to consumption
● Observable means of the means-end-chain
● Intrinsic (physical, inseparable part of the product)
● Extrinsic (related, attached to the product – not part of it)
● Psychosocial consequences and benefits
● Experience or credence attributes
● What the consumer wants to obtain
- True and Perceived quality cannot be observed
- Must be predicted by measurement (Ŷe and Ŷs)
- Matching index = rŶe,Ŷs = approximation of achievement index
Subject - object interaction
involvement, prior knowledge, level of education, perceived quality risk, quality consciousness
usage goals, time pressure
Quality perception as three step procedure
- Cue acquisition and cue categorisation
- (Inferential) attribute belief formation
- Integration of beliefs into overall quality judgement
Intrinsic cues are part of the physical product and cannot
be changed without also changing the physical product itself.
- for meat: color and amount of visible fat;
- for detergents: color, suds, and smell;
- for refrigerators: kind of lining and door hinges.
Extrinsic cues are related to the product, but are physically not part of it.
- price, brand name, country of origin, and store name.
- valid perception requires observational reliability
- Observational reliability is no guarantee for validity
- Observational reliability decreases with increasing abstraction
(1) external stimuli, (2) sensory receptors,
(3) mental processes, and (4) reactions to stimuli