Campaign for Prohibition and its Repeal (Key Events 1865-1992 (1893, Anti…
Campaign for Prohibition and its Repeal
M. Louise Gross - campaigner against Prohibition (Molly Pitcher Club)
Pauline Sabin - set up WONPR for repeal of prohibition
"Lemonade Lucy" Hayes - Wife of President Rutherford Hayes
American Birth Control League (ABL
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Anti-Saloon League (ASL)
Molly Pitcher Club - set up in 1922 to repeal prohibition
Women's Organisation for National Prohibition Reform (WONPR)
Association Against the Prohibition Amendment (AAPA)
Key Events 1865-1992
Anti-Saloon League (ASL)
was founded and became the main prohibition organisation after Willard's death. Supported by Methodists and Baptists. United with
and got 9 states to legislate against alcohol.
1917, 26 states had prohibition laws
. Congress passed prohibition amendment in 1917, 1919 ratified and became law in 18th Amendment
WCTU and ASL used concern of immigrants and lifestyle as propaganda. During war, propaganda against
became useful and successful. The drys (pro) better organised than wets (against)
Main spearhead was WCTU, creation of
who thought it was a mean of protecting the home. Protested, leafleted and held meetings. Persuaded
First Lady Hayes
to refuse to serve alcohol at the
which earned her nickname
which was good propaganda. Militant crusader
destroyed saloons with hatchets
Late 20s and early 30s saw women
movement wanting repeal as it had not protected family & home. Already existing M. Louise Gross'
Molly Pitcher Club
prohibition from the start. Argued it was against personal freedom
after 1865 due to startling increase in consumption. Prohibition Party founded 1869 and had local success. Women's voices heard when speaking about domestic violence
Prohibition produced new social problems - widespread abuse of prohibition laws, racketeering, prostitution and drug trafficking. Gang violence high with no effective police.
then founded the
and gave charismatic leadership and used her wealth to help. WONPR used powers to change millions of minds and support them. 1932, 1.5 million became members
First attack on
was late 18th Century. The Temperance Movement had 1 million members and 5,000 branches. Alcohol linked to crime.
WONPR argued repeal would protect family and home and
proved prohibition had failed. Temperance would help (against consumption, not ban). WONPR well-connected and got support from the top. Female members husbands part of AAPA were wealthy and connected to drinks trade.
Heavy drinking increasing problem in 19th Century. Tourists marvelled at the amount drank. Any occasion afforded excuse to drink. Belief it prevented disease
needed money from taxing liquor to fund
policies in 30s.
18th Amendment repealed by 22nd Amendment