The Cold War Divides the World (Fighting for the Third World (Cold War…
The Cold War Divides the World
Confrontations in the Middle East
The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
Afghanistan maintained its independence from US and Soviets
Soviet influence increased
Soviets invade in 1979 and become stuck.
Americans supplied weapons
Jimmy Carter warned Soviets
Ordered a Boycott of the Moscow Olympics
Soviet President withdraws troops by 1989
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Stopped grain shipments to Soviets
Believed to be a threat to Middle Eastern Oil
Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
Throughout the Middle East the oil industry found a clash between traditional islamic values and modern materialism.
This conflict was a larger problem in Iran than any other country.
Western Modern materialists followed Iran’s leader, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi embraced modern values.
Iranian nationalists followed under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq
A British-owned oil company was nationalized.
the shah were forced to flee
the United States helped restore the shah to power in fear they would turn to Soviet power.
Timeline of the relationship between the US and Iran
Khomeini's Anti-U.S. Policies
The foreign policies were driven by hatred of the United States.
The Khomeini encouraged the overthrow of the secular governments
This raised tension with Iraq
In 1980 War broke out
The Soviets were supporters of Iraq
The US aided both sides to keep the balance of power
Iraq was governed by Saddam Hussein
They took more than 60 Hostages
The hostages remained as prisoners for 444 days
They forced the US to have the shah go to trial
Could the United States have gained Komeini’s support by withdrawing aid to the Shah?
Yes, the Us could have gained the support because that was part of what they were asking for in their foreign policy to release their men.
The United States Supports Secular Rule
With U.S. support, the shah westernized his country.
By the end of the 1950s, Iran’s capital had been industrialized.
Was Communism the cause of the ouster of Shah Pahlovi from Iran?
Yes. Shah embraced modern values which ultimately dismissed him from Iran.
The shah tried to weaken the political influence of
Iran’s conservative Muslim leaders,
Faced with overwhelming opposition, the shah fled Iran in 1979.
Confrontations in Latin America
Civil War in Nicaragua
The civil war in Nicaragua lasted over a decade and weakened their economy
Did their economy ever recover?
No, their economy is very poor and not stable in any way
In 1990, President Ortega agreed to hold the nation's first free elections
Violeta Chamorro, a reform candidate, defeated him
The Sandinistas were also defeated in elections in 1996 and 2001
Ortega won the election in 2006 and returned to power
The U.S. had funded the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza with his family since 1933
Why did they fund his dictatorship?
They funded it because it was against communism and they wanted to stop the spread of it
In 1979, Communist Sandinista rebels toppled Somoza's son
The U.S. and Soviet Union gave aid to the Sandinistas and their leader,
The Sandinistas gave aid to other Marxist rebels
The U.S. supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist forces called the Contras
Nuclear Face-off: The Cuban Missile Crisis
People around the world feared nuclear war because of rising tension
Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro became completely dependent on Soviet support because of the resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis
What did the Cuban Missile Crisis reveal about the policy of the United States?
It revealed that the US was not afraid to use their nuclear weapons and that they would not let down
Castro backed Communist revolutions in Latin America and Africa
Soviet aid to Cuba ended with the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991
Breakup Of Soviet Union
This hurt the Cuban economy and Castro loosened state control of Cuba's economy
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev believed the US wouldn't resist soviet expansion in Latin America
In July 1962, Khrushchev began to build missiles in Cuba
The sites were discovered, and John F. Kennedy declared they were a threat
He demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of Cuba
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
How did the U.S. policy toward Cuba backfire?
When we kept ending them money the leader was croup and kept and wastes alot of it
Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator Fulgencio Batista who had U.S. support
Cuban resentment led to a popular revolution which overthrew Batista in January 1959
Castro was a harsh dictator he suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents and tightly controlled the press
increased industrialization with population growth and the gap between rich and the poor grew
with the increase in both of them led Latin American nations to seek aid from both superpowers
many of these countries had short- lived democracy and harsh military rule
Fighting for the Third World
Association of Nonaligned Nations
Should the U.S. sometimes engage in assassination?
Yes, because if you assassinate a dictator, it's comparable to what Hitler and Stalin did. Mistakes and damage from assassinators are worth it because there will always be damaged when you assassinate someone.
A few nations were able to maintain their neutrality and took sides of the superpowers or played competing sides against each other.
India vowed to remain neutral.
Important players of the Cold War were the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on China also.
Cold War Stratgies
Why was it hard for countries to remain non aligned?
The countries struggle to remain non-aligned because countries that weren't not involved they were forced to be involved in war.
Soviet offered India and Egypt military and technical assistance.
The United States built schools , and set up programs to combat poverty.
United States , Soviet Union, and sometimes China Used variety of techniques for them to gain more influence in the Third World
Third world nations ,located in the Latin America,Asia , and Africa theses were countries that were economically poor and politically unstable.
They had also suffered from ethnic conflicts and lack of technology and education.