Response to the Great Depression (Germany (As many Jewish people began to…
Response to the Great Depression
The government was communist, and it was heavily run from the top, and this was to make sure that Russia could catch up to the rest of the world. Russia's economy would completely change from agricultural to industrial because they were trying to catch up with the rest of the world.
Russia was a Tsarist society, but this would change due to the Bolshevik Revolution. Lenin would join the Bolshevik party and they would overthrow the Tsar government. They would kill Tsar Nicholas II, the former leader of Russia, during this revolution. Lenin would then become the new leader of the newly named Soviet Union.
Soviet Union Flag
War Communism was an economic and political system that was put in place by the communist party during the Bolshevik revolution. The Bolshevik's would gain power over banks and industry, and this caused for a major dip in industrial production.
NEP stands for New Economic Policy, and this would restore the market economy and private enterprise in Russia for a short time. The government returned small industries to private ownership. Peasants now could sell their surpluses of goods at free marked prices. Technical schools were also added to teach technicians and engineers. The NEP had a great effect on Russia's industry and economy.
Joseph Stalin implemented the Five-Year Plans, and these were put in place to catch up Russia's economy and industry. with western powers. Every five years Stalin would set an unrealistic production goal to reach by the end of the five years. This improved industry in Russia quite heavily.
Collectivization was part of Stalin's First Five-Year Plans, and this was when the people give up their land to help the government. These plans had negative effects on the people because they had to meet expectations to give food to the government before they could eat the food that they grew on their farms. Many people died from starvation because they were unable to eat the food that they were growing.
The Great Purge was a persecution and oppression in the Soviet Union. It started when Stalin ordered the assassination of Sergei Kirov. The old Bolsheviks people were the people that were persecuted for treason or imprisoned. This was a very dark time in Russian history because twenty million people were sent to labor camp, and almost half of those twenty million died.
Leader: Benito Mussolini
Italy turned to fascism after the Great was, and its leader was Benito Mussolini. Before the Great Depression Italy was an agricultural state, but it had to change because the economics were failing. Mussolini took over and helped Italy turn into a new found state of power.
The Fascist State under Mussolini turned into a centralized one party government. Many of the rights of Italians were taken away such as, freedom of speech, freedom of press, and freedom of association. During this time the state Jews were labeled unpatriotic by the government. All of these different components were part of the Fascist State in Italy.
Germany was a federal republic at this time before it was Changed to a single-party dictatorship as Hitler came into power.
This was Germany's defiance of fascism and the formation of National Socialism/Nazism. It attracted rapid growth as many approved of it.
Hitler's ideology began to spread rapidly and so did the Nazi party. The Republic began to fall and the Nazi party became the largest in parliament. Hitler rose through the ranks and they began to change Germany from a republic to a single-party dictatorship.
Once the Nazi party was in power they began to implement their racist teachings into the community forming a Racial State. Nazi wanted to purify their idea of the German race by kicking out who they called "racially inferior". Lead to discrimination of Jews and others in daily life.
As many Jewish people began to leave Germany the Nazi party reacted in what was called Kristallnacht or "The Night of Broken Glass". During the nights of both 9th and the 10th days of November 1938, Nazi destroyed and burned Jewish businesses, synagogues, and other Jewish buildings. They also killed over 100 Jewish people.
Anti-Semitism- The widespread discrimination of Jews under the leadership of Hitler and the Nazi party. They killed and persecuted many Jews to ensure their idea of racial order.
Nazi Eugenics- This is where the Nazi sterilized men and women who they deemed their offspring would be worthless to society for a number of different physical, mental and racial reasons. They also killed over 200,000 men, women and children in search for racial purity.
Nuremberg Laws- These laws deprived Jewish people living in Germany of their citizenship. They also prohibited marriage and reproduction of Jewish and German citizens. They also prohibited Jews from banks and the economy in general. Many Jewish people lost them jobs and Jewish business owners were liquidated.
The Nazi rose to power under the leadership of Hitler. As he began to gain a large following for providing a scapegoat the Nazi party gained more power in government. They became so prominent that the Nazi party and Hitler received 36 percent of votes after they ran for the first time. As Hitler rose through the ranks so did the Nazi party until they became head of the government and Germany as a whole.
Woman and Race- Nazis wanted to drastically increase the number of perfect children. They did this changing divorce law, limiting birth control resources, outlawing abortion and pushing marriege and reproduction amoung younger people.
The United States
The crash of 1929 happened on October 29 and shaped the next 14 years in the United States. This was the day that the stock market came crashing down and directly caused the long-lasting, Great Depression.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930. This act was a desperate attempt to protect small businesses by raising import fees and taxes. But in turn, this act only put a strain on the U.S economy and increased its tariff rates.
Social Conditions in the U.S were at an all-time low. There were more people homeless and in poverty than ever before. The Great Depression lead to more separation between classes, starvation, homelessness, health problems and an overall feeling of despair in the U.S. Wage cuts lead to worsened conditions for workers and small business owners.
President Franklin Delanor Roosevelt.
John Maynard Keynes developed the idea of Keynesian Economics. Keynes was one of the first to develop an idea that would attempt to increase employment and production. He pushed the idea of a free market saying that it would employ everyone who needed a job as long as wages were balanced. He believed that economy derived from the amount of money spent by household, businesses and the government. Keynesian Economics the government could impose public policies that would aim for employment.
The New Deal was an administrative program that aimed to fix the problems brought on by the Great Depression. Their first goal was to relive the tensions brought on by the massive amount of unemployed people in the United States. Two agencies were formed that allowed the government to provide temporary jobs to those in need. The SEC protected the working class from fraudulent stock market practices.
The American Economic Contraction was where the economy peaked before it came crashing down in the stock market crash.