Responses to the Great Depression (Germany (Germany became a racial state…
Responses to the Great Depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt
USA is a constitutional federal republic with a democracy
The Crash of 1929 occurred when investors traded 16 million shares in the NYSE in 1 day, which led to the loss of billions of dollars. This massive crash was mainly due to the fact that the stock market was extremely inflated, meaning that the value of stocks was bound to decline at any time.This sparked fear in investors throughout America, leading to the trading of shares. The Crash of 1929 was the precursor to the Great Depression.
The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 was the implementation of tariffs on 20,000 imported goods, and it was an attempt to implement a protectionist trading policy in America. These tariffs, in turn, brought many counter-tariffs from American trading partners. Therefore, this act greatly decreased the amount of international trade that occurred.
American society during the Great Depression was very harsh, and the massive unemployment rate of 25% led to a lot of stress for the working class of America. The crime rate rose as many people started to commit petty crimes in order to provide for their families. In addition, many stressed people resorted to suicide in order to escape their debts and social suffering. In school, high school attendance decreased and university prices fell, meaning that some schools became understaffed or were forced to close. Many people also migrated to California or Arizona for a better life.
Keynesian economics, in its most basic form, states that as aggregate demand becomes unstable in the economy, then the market will result in a series of recessions. It also calls for governmental intervention during the time of these recessions.
Keynesian Economics with Jacob Clifford
The New Deal was a series of financial reforms and regulations in order to cure America from its depression. The New Deal focused on relief for the unemployed, economic recovery, and the prevention of another depression in the future. The New Deal set minimum wages for workers, allowing for more economic stability for the working class. Thus, the New Deal was a crucial part in American economic recovery.
America experienced a time of extreme economic contraction, meaning that there was less money flowing into the government.
Economic Expansions and Contractions
Italy had a Fascist government during the Great depression. Mussolini became the leader during this time and led through oppression and fear. Italy took aggressive foreign policies during this time which led to tense relations with other European countries.
and its rise.
Germany also had a fascist government which led through loyalty and obedience. If you went against the state there were severe consequences which were basically all death. Jews took it especially severely in Germany because of Hitler's policy that they were to blame for all of the states problems.
The Nazi Party held the belief that Jews were the cause for all misfortune of the German state. They turned Germany into a dictatorship. Hitler enlarged the army and banned or killed all political rivals. He controlled all facets of peoples life.
or Nazism is the utilization of a charismatic leader to take complete control over the people within a nation. It also takes an intense take on Nationalism as seen in Germany by how they considered them the most superior race on earth even excluding people from other cultures.
The Rise of Hitler
and the Nazi Political Party.
Germany became a racial state as they tried to re-implement class system. They based there class system on race. They claimed that they were the top race of the top species and looked down on everyone else. This helped the fascist government rise as it relies on a Nationalistic resolve.
The Nazi Party didn't allow women onto it's committees or elected positions but many were still members all the same. They were told to focus on their roles as wives and mothers.They wanted "Pure Aryan" women to produce as many children as possible. They also made laws against marriage between pure Germans and people from other cultures. Racism became very pronounced and severe during this time. It became dangerous to be anything but German in Germany for fear of being killed.
or the belief that you could genetically be superior to others through "pure" breeding.
Anti-Semitic views were essentially the hatred of Jews and the Jewish culture. This belief that Jewish people were responsible for all of Germany's problems spread like wildfire throughout the Nazi's reign. Anyone who could taint the gene pool was most likely sent to a concentration camp where they died.
were put in place by Hitler to cement in place the loss of rights by nonGerman citizens or in paticular Jews..
or the night of broken glass was a night of violence aimed against Jewish synagogues, homes, and businesses.
Soviet Union (USSR)
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The USSR was a socilalist communist federal republic
The Bolshevik Revolution was the revolution that occurred in 1917 and brought the end to the Romanov Dynasty of Russia. The Bolsheviks were lead by Vladamir Lenin, who called for a Soviet government rather than a government led by the bourgeoisie and the Duma. Their strategy was centered around Petrograd, then the capital, and to lead an armed insurrection to overthrow the Provisional Government. Thus, a socialist communist state was formed in Russia.
War Communism was an economic system promoted by Lenin in order to solve the economic struggles in Russia. One of the main products of war communism was the nationalization of land, meaning that land was owned by the government. Banks, shipping, and foreign trade was also controlled by the government. Thus, all forms of capitalism were removed from the nation. Food production, labor, and the peasantry were all controlled by the government in order to create a sufficient supply of food for the people.
The New Economic Policy (NEP) was a policy created by Lenin to state that the USSR would strive for "state capitalism," which is defined as a free market and capitalism which is subject to control. The nationalist economy of War Communism was revoked and the Soviets turned toward a system of mixed economy. Small-scale industry could be subject to private ownership, while large-scale industry was kept in the hands of the government. Peasants could own and cultivate their own land while paying taxes, and money was re-introduced into the economy since it had been abolished by War Communism.
Lenin's Five Year Plans were put in place in order to ensure economic growth over limited periods of time.The first of these plans was devoted to developing heavy industry (steel) and to the collectivization of agriculture. This collectivization would eventually lead to famines throughout the peasantry. Industrial and agricultural development were both common themes in all of the five year plans, and a focus on military development was implemented after World War II.
Stalin's Five Year Plans
Collectivization is when peasants are forced to give up their land and to join collective farms. This strategy had the main goal of quickly industrializing the Soviet Union. Those who resisted collectivization were either executed by Stalin or sent to labor camps. This is considered a socialist idea..
The Great Purge was a campaign of political repression and was a time of extreme persecution and oppression. This purge was used in order to remove those who opposed the new economic policies created by Stalin and to execute old Bolsheviks for treason. In its simplest form, it is state-organized bloodshed.
The Great Purge