Responses to the Great Depression (Germany (Women and Race (The Nazi…
Responses to the Great Depression
: Herbert Hoover
Type of Government: Democratic Repubilic
The Crash of 1929:
The most devastating stock market crash in history. This was the most significant indicator of the Great Depression. Many people had taken out loans to buy stocks, and when people frantically started selling their stocks, the economy crashed.
American Economic Contraction:
The phase where the economy as a whole was in decline (following the stock market crash). In the United States, contraction was the period when the GDP, industrial production, employment, and prices fell.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930:
This was where the American government put a tax on all imported goods as an attempt to be self-sustainable - not relying on the imports of other countries. However, this added to the economic strain of other countries since the depression was worldwide.
Social Conditions for Americans
: The optimism after the war when conditions seemed to be improving was quickly gone when the stock market crashed. About 10% of Americans had invested in stocks and lost their life savings. There was a significant amount of class separation during this time since some people were hit harder by the depression than others. Other major social conditions were low wages and unemployment.
: John Maynard Keynes said that capitalism was a good economic system and that the government should play a role in economics. They lowered taxes and increased government expenditures in an attempt to get out of the Great Depression.
The New Deal
: This was a series of public work projects, federal programs, financial reforms and regulations in response to the Great Depression. It was proposed by President Roosevelt.
Formed from 3 Italian political parties of PFR, PNF, and the Republican Fascist party it is created from the idea of Italian Nationalism, precisely during and after WW1 because they were not granted the land they were promised and felt rather angry about this, for obvious reasons as they were lacking a large section of land that they had previously lost. It was a way for them to attempt and stable their economy.
Mussolini was originally elected as president until he dropped the pretense and took over as a total dictator in 1925, three years after becoming prime minister of Italy.
Type of Government:
Totalitarian Communist Dictatorship/Fascist
: This was a revolution led by Lenin against the Provisional government. This ended the Romanov dynasty and the czarist rule that had been in place for a very long time. The Bolsheviks later turned into the Communist Party, transforming Russia into a Communist state.
: Vladimir Lenin
This was a disorderly response hastily thrown together by the Bolshevik party. Everything was controlled by the government, so private businesses were not allowed. It failed and was replaced by the New Economic Policy.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
: Lenin ended War Communism and established the NEP. Privately owned things were allowed again, signaling less government control. There was a push for training for engineers to become a more powerful state.
: The goal of these plans was to industrialize, especially with steel production, at the expense of consumer goods, so that Russia turned from an agricultural society into an industrial one. It was proposed by Joseph Stalin.
Collectivization of agriculture was where everyone had to share their crops with the state, so that the collective society would benefit and they would not. This was especially targeted against the kulaks, who had become wealthy peasants because of the NEP. There were revolts where people burned their crops as a response to this and many people starved and died.
The Great Purge
: Stalin accused about 1.5 million upper-classed people of treason (military officers, government officials, anyone with power that could challenge his own) and had most of them executed.
A far-right party, precursor to the National Socialist Worker Party . The Nazi Party Was formed of nationalists, racists, and populists. Created by the fuhrer Anton Drexler and carried on by Hitler and later Bormann. This group of people were used to fight against communism and to make sure that Germany did not become a communist government.
National Socialism, or Nazism, is heavily influenced by fascism and Germanic nationalism. National Socialism supports social Darwinism and scientific racism. An anti-communist group that was supported heavily by the fuhrer and government.
Adolf Hitler officially started his rise to power when elected fuhrer in the federal parliamentary republic of Germany. He was very popular in the nationalist community with his views on colored people and the Jewish minority of people. After his come to power he became associated as first in command soon enough and was granted emergency powers and gained control of the rest of the nation.
Between 1933 and 1945 the Nazi party decided to attempt and restruct the social classes in Germany, basing the soclal classes on race and economical status alone, very similar to the classes implemented in the Americas during Spanish and Portuguese conquest.
Democratic, federal parliamentary Republic
Elected by the people are the government officials as it is popular sovereignty. Very similar to the American government it has three different branches of judicial, legislative, and executive. It is dominated by 2 separate parties called the CDU and SPD parties. The CDU is the Christian Democratic Union and the SPD is the Social Democratic Part of Germany.
Women and Race
The Nazi doctrine elevated white male status and declined that of females in society, making them unable to join the Nazi Party officially and excluding them from meetings, the same went for colored people who were prosecuted even further nearly to the point of the Jewish population,
Eugenics were a synonym to racial hygiene in Nazi Germany. This was the process of Nazi Germany trying to eliminate unwanted genes such as physical and mental disabilities as well as homosexuality and those considered physically or mentally feeble. This was their way of attmepting to cleanse the population and make it "perfect".
The prejudice against Jewish people in Nazi Germany. This went as far as concentration camps killing may, many people i the process of this specific religion. This was based on how they thought the Jewish immigrants were responsible for lowering of the economy and were escape goats for their anger.
Laws passed to limit and prohibit contact between Jews and German population. More specifically marriage and employment between the two.
Kristallnacht or night of broken glass was a single night where many Jews were massacred as well as stores and homes burned, looted, or rampaged because they belonged to Jewish people.