Response to Economic Chalenges (Germany (The Racial State: The nazi party…
Response to Economic Chalenges
Leader during the Great Depression:
Type of Government:
The Crash of 1929:
People striated to earn more money as they recovered from the war so many people invested their life savings into the stock market. Unfortunately the market crashed in 1929 and most people lost most of their money. People tried to get their money back but couldn't. This was the beginning of the great depression in the United States.
American Economic Contraction:
Demands of consumers dropped and companies could not sell their inventories. This meant that many people lost their jobs because they did not need as many workers to meet the economic demands at that time. The national income dropped and unemployment rates rose.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930:
Act passed by the american government to impose tariff barriers, import quotas, and import prohibitions in order to promote economic nationalism. Other countries' governments responded negatively by adding tariffs to all imports from the united states.
Lower classes struggled a lot as many people could not find jobs. Social divisions occurred between the upper and lower classes because the upper classes did not experience the economic hardships that the lower classes did.Topics of literature changed and reflected the displeasure of the people about social and economic circumstances.
John Maynard Keynes wanted to increase the demand of products in the US. He wanted the government to lower interest rates and to promote investment. Also wanted to take on more public works projects to provide more jobs.
The New Deal:
Proposed by FDR to reinflate the economy and to ease the pressure caused by the GD. Passed a series of economic and social reforms that supported the working class such as establishing a minimum wage and social security. Ultimately started an age of economic legislation in America.
2 Leaders during Great Depression:
Lenin and Stalin
Type of government:
Occurred in 1917 when the Bolshevik (Communist) party overthrew the Provisional government. The people wanted Russia to leave the war and the provisional government claimed that they didn't have the power to do that. The Bolsheviks took over the Petrograd soviet and took matters into their own hands by storming the provisional government building and killing many officials.
The process of transitioning into socialism in Russia. This included the government obtaining private land and also private businesses and enterprises. The government exempted taking land from the poor to maintain their "fanbase". Farmer production decreased and made their agricultural production reduce by 90%. Caused workers to go on strike.
Stands for New Economic Policy and was proposed by Lenin. This temporarily restored the free market in Russia. The government still had control over the larger corporations but left smaller-scale businesses to the people. Peasants were also allowed to sell their surpluses on the free market. This movement also implemented new training schools for technicians and engineers.
Started the transition of Russia into an industrial based society. These plans were proposed by Josef Stalin. This plan replaced Lenin's ideals of the NEP. It was an attempt to centralize the economy of Russia and to maintain a strong economy while the rest of the world was struggling. It was a different alternative to market capitalism.
This process was supported by Stalin and moved farmers off their private plots of land and onto large collective farms. It was enforced especially harsh against kulaks. Many farmers moved into cities and tried to live there but couldn't find jobs or couldn't sustain themselves. The system was slow and tough for citizens but it eventually worked and the government saw improvements in employment rates.
The Great Purge:
An event that occurred from 1935 to 1938 that included the purging of the Communist party and government officials. It was lead by Stalin and the Soviets and resulted in the killing of over 600,000 people. This removed all oppositions of Stalin's ideals and gave him lots of power.
Leaders during Great Depression: Adolf Hitler
Type of Government: Dictatorship
Nazi Party: The national socialist german worker's party. They were founded in 1919. Called for numerous concessions and reparations. Very anti-semitic views.
National Socialism: Also know as Nazism. It was a totalitarian movement. It held many appealing elements to the public and closely related to Italian Fascism. Had the idea of annihilating all enemies.
Hitler's Rise to Power: After the war, Hitler joined a small social nationalist party. He rose to the condition of the economy and rallied the people behind him with his charisma. He used personal ambition to strive for leader becoming chancellor then eventually dictator.
The Racial State: The nazi party tried to restructure society on racial lines meaning that the closer to an ideal Aryan the higher standing in society. Also targeting racial minorities
Women and Race: Hitler thought that the best way to put women into employment was to marry and they would then gain more rights. Hitler was a popular leader where around half of the voter were women. Women longed for a safe place for their children and Hitler promised that, drawing many to him and his cause.
Nazi Eugenics: Emphasized the perfect Aryan race. White fair skinned and light hair/eyes. Led to the idea of ethnic cleansing in a population.
Anti-Semitism: The literal definition is hostility of prejudice towards Jews. Hilter utilized this to justify his claims to power by telling the public that the Jews were the root of the problem.
Nuremberg Laws: They are two distinct laws that vastly oppress the rights and liberties of the Jewish population in Germany. The Reich citizenship laws and the law for the protection of German blood and German Honor.
Kristallnacht: The night of broken glass refers to a series of pogroms that sent people to destroy Jewish shops and businesses.
Leader during Great Depression: Benito Mussolini
Type of Government: Dictatorship
The Fascist State: Italy's fascist state was founded with the PFR party that stands for the fascist revolutionary party. Fascism entails a leader who has absolute power and oppresses his people and restricts criticism of the government.