War Communism was an economic policy applied to the USSR during the Russian Civil War. It was implemented by the Bolsheviks under Lenin's rule. It included nationalization of industries, which were then controlled by the government. The government enforced the control of foreign trade, rationing of food and goods, the banning of private enterprises, the taking of crops (particularly grain) from citizens, and forcing citizens to work in factories. This economic policy was enforced to win the war, while other Bolsheviks believe it was enforced to slowly create a socialist society in the Soviet Union. The first goal of War Communism was a success, and it allowed for the Soviet Union to halt the advance of the White Army and gain territory. It also caused problems for the peasants, as they lost the will to work because, they knew any surplus would go to the government. This caused a decrease in labor and a famine throughout Russia. These policies also resulted in strikes and peasant rebellions from the poorer population. Last, the economy of Russia went down considerably. A black market emerged, bartering became more popular than hard money, industry output fell, and most wages were payed in goods instead of money.