responses to the great depression (Soviet Union cyka blyat (Soviet Union…
responses to the great depression
Soviet Union Government: the Soviet Union was a communist dictatorship that was lead by a single figure. during the time of the great depression Joseph Stalin used this world wide financial struggle to show he needed to be in power to stabilize and grow the Russian economy.
Joseph Stalin: he was the dictator of the Soviet Union from 1929-1953 and was the successor to Vladimir Lenin. he built Russia into the second largest industrial economy in the world from a rural agricultural centered country. he was a very ruthless leader that killed millions of his own people to stay in power and turn Russia into an economic power house.
Five-Year Plans: it was an economic system introduced by Joseph Stalin after the NEP economic system. it was introduced to make industry and agriculture under government control at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods. the Five-Year plan in Soviet Russia lead to famine especially in Ukraine and caused the death of millions.
Collectivization: it was was in to place by the Five-Year Plans and collectivized all of the agricultural products and industrial products and was controlled by the Soviet Union government. the reason why this happened in the Soviet Union was because the government wanted immediate industrial and agriculture growth. the government grew industrialization by selling the surplus of agriculture products and using the profit to grow industry. this system eventually failed because the agriculture production in the Soviet Union failed, but the government still took large amounts of the agriculture products produced.
The Great Purge: they were a series of closed trials against old Bolsheviks that were supposedly enemies of the state in the 1930's. most of the people on trial were either executed or exiled and millions of people were sent to prison camps because they were seen as enemy of the state.
Vladimir Lenin: he was the founder of the communist party in Russia and was the leader of the 1917 communist revolution in Russia.
New Economic Policy (NEP): after the failure of the War communism economic plan the government had to put a new economic plan into place. the NEP was put into place temporarily to get control over the broken down economy in Russia , the NEP gave the government control over heavy industry, banking, and foreign trade while farming and smaller businesses were privatized. from 1928 to 1929 there were many grain shortages that forced the government to take control over farming in the state again and the NEP was no longer the economic system of Soviet Russia.
Bolshevik Revolution: this revolution conducted by the Bolshevik party in Russia marked the end of Monarchies in Russia. it started on November 7, 1917 and reformed the previous government and put in place a communist government lead by Vladimir Lenin
War Communism: it was the economic system that was in place from 1918 to 1921 that was brought about by the Bolshevik Revolution. it nationalized industry and allowed the state to take control over surplus grain from the people. over all it was a failure and caused the economy to drop by one fifth and wages of workers dropped by a third.
U.S.A government: the American government is a democratic republic and before the great depression the government's role in the economy was very small with only 2.5 people paying for federal income tax in 1929; but after the great depression the government had to set in place things like social security, minimum wage, and agriculture price supports.
Franklin D. Roosevelt: he was the president of the United States of America from 1933-1945 and was a key figure in making the U.S. government more involved in the lives of citizens with things like the Social Security Act.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930: it was an act passed in 1930 that was named after it's chief sponsors, Reed Smoot and Willis Hawley that helped protect jobs, farms, and businesses that were already in place, and help create new jobs in America.
Keynesian economics:this ideology was invented by John Maynard Keynes in his General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money and it states that companies should not make lots of cheap jobs that make products with a low demand, but instead make jobs that last longer and make products that are in demand. this ideology also states that the government should be more involved enterprises to ensure products that are not in demand are not made.
The New Deal: it was a series of various government projects and programs that got the government more involved in the public and in the country. it made worker's unions, public works projects, and acts that helped the American people. the key figure in all of this was Franklin D. Roosevelt because of his communication with the American people and getting them on board with these government programs.
The Stock Market Crash of 1929: on October 29, 1929, a stock market crash called Black Tuesday hit America and after it caused the American economy to crash and eventually spiraled down into the rest of the world causing one of the longest lasting and largest economic depressions the world has ever seen.
American Economic Contraction: during the 1920's and 1930's due to the devastation of agricultural production that never fully bounced back, banks over extending themselves, and the government and American corporations taking to many loans; the economy contracted and left millions of people jobless and struggling to find work and provide for their families.
Social Conditions for Americans: during the Great Depression, the lower classes were the most effected and because of this there was an even larger separation of classes than there already was. there were clear housing areas in cities for the different classes and very different lifestyles between the classes.
the Italian Government: during the Great Depression the country was struggling due to a lack of jobs, fascism became the ideology of the Italian government in 1925 mainly because it was seen as a fix to the economic problem. many government projects were started due to the conversion to fascism and many jobs were created because of it. the conversion to fascism was a quick fix to Italy's financial problem and was eventually a failure.
Benito Mussolini: he was the prime minister and eventually the dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1945, he founded the fascist party in Italy. he was known for his flamboyant speeches and made many reforms to the government such as giving the government control over industry in the country.
The Fascist State: the fascist state in Italy gained popularity and rose to power due to the fact that it was seemingly fixing Italy's economic problems. the fascist state created jobs for people in Italy. the republican fascist Italian state ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943.
The German Government: the Wiemar government during the great depression was failing to keep the country out of economic downfall, because after black Tuesday the American banks and government stopped giving out loans to the German government that were keeping it afloat after WW I. over 6 million German citizens became unemployed and in 1933 the government converted to fascism to get the government out of it's economic downfall.
Adolf Hitler: he was the chancellor of Germany from 1933-1945 and founded the Nazi fascist party in 1919. he wrote the book Mein Kampf describing his ideals. he started WW II and in the Holocast killed 6 million Jewish people becasue he thought it was his duty to rid the world of them.
The Nazi Party: it was a fascist government party that took control over the German government in 1933. it was founded by Adolf Hitler in 1919 and was seen as a fix to Germany's terrible economic problems. it was also a socialist party that wanted the government to control the enterprises in Germany.
Hitler's Rise to Power: he became the leader of the Nazi party in 1919 after he founded it and this form of government was seemingly just what Germany needed after WW I and the great depression. the Nazi party became popular after previous German government had failed the country economically. he became the chancellor of Germany after running for it in 1932 and became chancellor in 1933. he became dictator after 18 months of being chancellor.
National Socialism: it was the key ideology of the Nazi party in Germany that gives the government total control. the first example of National Socialism was not Nazi Germany, it was Frederick William who used this ideology to run the Prussian army. National Socialism is a very empirical ideology that caused Germany to start WW II.
The Racial State: it was an attempt by the Nazi state in Germany to make caste system based upon race or sexual orientation. the Nazis wanted to create an Aryan society that had homogeneity and one people to rule all other peoples. the Nazis were especially hateful against Jews because while the German people were suffering, the Jewish people were fine because they worked in the banks mostly and they were used as a scapegoat because of this.
Women and Race: during the rule of the Nazi state women were encouraged to have children to spread the German race even more than it already had. women were seen as just mothers and not as equals.
Nazi Eugenics: the Nazis practiced eugenics by having Germans having children with Germans and having other races pushed out. the Nazis believed that the German race was supposed to rule over all races and was the best of human evolution. they kept there ideals of eugenics by killing all other races in Germany such as the Jewish people.
Antisemitism: it is being hostile to Jews. the most famous example of this is the use of it in Nazi Germany with the death camps used to kill 6 million Jews. this ideology was used in Nazi Germany to make Jews a scapegoat for economic problems.
the Nuremberg Laws: at the annual rally at Nuremberg the Nazi government announced many laws against Jews and other races. these laws allowed the government to segregate Jews very drastically by putting them in certain areas of cities, forcing them to identify themselves as a Jew, and eventually killed 6 million Jews because of this.
Kristallnacht: this means the night of broken glass, it was November 9, 1938 when 250 synagogues were burned and 7,000 Jewish businesses were looted and destroyed. the reason why it happened was because a Jewish teenage boy killed a German official in Paris. the German people were infuriated by this and Joseph Goebbels a German propaganda minister got the word out about this incident.