Education (How to measure teacher quality? (How well can we measure…
How to measure teacher quality?
Why is it important to measure teacher quality?
Performance pay in education?
School spending going up and a lot on teachers: is this worth it?
What helps students improve? Do teachers help students improve? Should we hire better teachers?
How well can we measure teacher quality? Or what can we use to measure teacher quality?
Standard Value Added Model
Is Value Added a good measure of teacher quality?
Kane, McCaffrey, Miller and Staiger (2013): randomly assign students to teachers and see that VA predicts student achievement very well!
Jacob and Lefgren (2005): principals can predict best and worst, but find it difficult to predict middle
Araujo, Carneiro et al. (2016): parents seem to know class quality and teacher quality
Other Observable Predictors
Rockoff, Jacob, Kane, Staiger (2008): distribution of simulated VA much wider than traditional and nontraditional characteristics
Kane et al. (2008): None, except teacher experience
Araujo, Carneiro, Cruz, Schady (2016): randomly assign students to classes in Ecuador, IQ somewhat important in teaching
Does estimated teacher quality even have any effect on student learning?
Jacob, Lefgren and Sims (2008): teacher effects quickly erode, 1 year persistence of only about 20%
Carrell and West (2010): in USAF, teachers end up teaching to the test, and do not teach deep concepts, end up no persistence of effects
How about long term impacts?
Chetty et al. (2011): STAR experiment with 11571 students randomly assigned to classes in Tennessee: find positive effect of class quality and teacher quality on earnings, college etc
Chetty, Friedman, Rockoff (2014): link teacher VA to tax records, positive effect on earning, college, retirement savings, negative effect on fertility
But future test scores fall, might be that teachers teaching valuesrather than academics
Araujo, Carneiro, Cruz, Schady (2016): same impacts as normal reports that 1 SD of teachers VA results in 0.1SD of student scres improvement
What are the empirical issues in measuring teacher quality?
Fluctuations in Teacher Quality
Non random selection of teachers
Rothstein (2010): biased
Chetty, Friedman, Rockotff (2014): bias is small