Development of birth to early childhood (0-8 years old) (language…
Development of birth to early childhood (0-8 years old)
development of gross and fine motor skills
development from head to toe. development from inside out
Piaget. Schema are current understanding of a concept and can be developed. children's schema are at a disequilibrium when they are confused. it goes through a stage of assimilation where both schemas are adapted and then accommodation when they are put into one new schema.
sensory development. (0-2 years old) focuses on physical sensations. learnt that they are different to each other. OBJECT PERMANENCE means they are unable to understand that although somethings is out of sight, doesn't mean it doesn't exist
pre-occupational stage (2-7 years). the way they stink is still different to adults. CONSERVATION OF MASS, they are unable to understanding that although the physical appearance of two objects different, their mass and volume is the same. EGOCENTRIC ISM, refers to the child being unable to understand things from different points of views. CLASS INCLUSION, means that the child is unable to class a group of things into more than one sub class.
concrete operations (7-11 years). in this stage they are able to do everything they couldn't in the past stage. they are able to concrete logical thunk with physical objects and understand the rule of reversibility. however they are unable to abstract think, to see what could be without it physically being there.
formal operations (11+) here they are able to understand everything they couldn't in the past but also abstract think. they can reason outside of experience, any younger is distracted by their own knowledge.
criticisms, is that Piaget age bands where incorrect. that some people are late developers and some fast.
however it has been tested a lot of times which makes it valid and reliable
Nativist theory: Chomsky believed that every child was born with an LAD device within the brain that is able to pick up language and grammar over time. it is genetically built in and from ages 0-9 active to learn. after this period it is able to specialise in a language making it harder to learn as they get older.However, adults are able to speak fluent languages. and no one is able to find the LAD in the brain.
Learning theory: that children learn from reinforcement. when they are given a treat when they are right and punished when wrong. it strengthens behavior
interaction theory: children desire to communicate, so they know how. a mixture of the other two theories
Mary Ainsworth strange situation. done an experiment where children are put in a room with their mother and a stranger. in different experiments the child is left alone as each adult walks in and out. they fount that one was an INSECURE AVOIDANT low stranger anxiety, unconcerned about situation. SECURELY ATTACHED had high stranger anxiety, relieved when mum came back and explored. the last was INSECURE RESISTANT had high stranger anxiety, upset by separation and rejected contact when mum returned. the test was reliable due to large scale, however unethical.
Chomsky believed in the attachment theory. the idea that a child needs to find an attachment to a caregiver at a young age other wise the child will grow to be a delinquent. the attachment gives them safety and trust, so if the attachment was to someone unsustainable or to no body it is said that the child emotional development and mental will be distorted. they will find it difficult to form relationships and may suffer social problems.
Bandura social learning theory: this was the theory that the way a child acts socially is due to what they witness. for example in boxing season the number of homicides rise. he did a test with BOBO the doll and told the children to act aggressively towards it, each did something different based on what they have whiteness. they witness an act, they find the opportunity to preform the same act. depending on the response, they may do the act again after that. the experiment however didn't tell us why the child was motivated to preform each act. it was also an unethical experiment.
Bandura believed that it was the role of reinforcement that made a child act a certain way. this included self pride, or a sense of accomplishment. he said that if a response to an action was negative they were less likely to do it again, but if it was good then they would.