31.1: Postwar Uncertainty (Technological Advances Improve Life (Radio and…
31.1: Postwar Uncertainty
Technological Advances Improve Life
During the war there were a lot of new medicines and treatments developed.
The technological advances were used to improve transportation and communication
Benefited from a host of wartime innovations and improvements-electric starters, air-filled tires, and more powerful engines.
They started polishing cars and gave them headlights and a chrome-plated bumper.
Before the war, only the rich could buy cars, and after the war, prices dropped so the middle class could purchase them.
Change - They dropped the prices of cars after the war so the middle class could afford them. More people were driving.
Air travel became popular after the war by Charles Lindergh who did a 33-hour solo flight.
Only rich could afford to fly
Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic.
Radio and Movies
First successful experiments with radio was in 1895 done by Guglielmo Marconi.
The worlds first commercial radio station-KDKA in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania-began broadcasting in 1920
Los Angeles was where 90 percent of all films were made.
Charlie Chaplin was named the King of Hollywood's silent screen. Sound came later in the 1920s
Which technological advance do you think had the greatest effect on society?
I think that the radio had the greatest impact. It made it so everyone knew what was going on in the world and they knew it almost exactly when it happened.
How might World War 1 spurred developments on the radio?
Communication is key in a lot of things. People needed to find a way to communicate with each other and I think that's why developments on the radio were happening.
Worl War 1 Technology
Society Challenges Convetion
WW1 brought a new look to the social patterns. New ideas lead to a individual freedom during the 1920s. Young people broke the modern values.
Women's Roles Change
This time brought big changes for women. The war gave women a chance to take up new roles. This really helped in allowing women to vote.
Women's suffrage started to become law in places like the United States, Britain, Germany, Sweden, and Austria.
Women quit wearing restrictive outfits and they started to cut their hair. They would wear make up, drive cars, and smoke in public. Most women still followed traditions like marriage and family. Though an increasing number spoke out for greater freedom.
Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman risked getting arrested b speaking in favor for birth control. The number of women working in medicine, education, journalism, and other professions increase as women look for new careers.
What goals were women seeking in the 1920s.
The women in the 1920s were wanting to be more free. This would include being able to do what they men could. They wanted to work jobs and not be stay at home. They wanted to be able to choose how they lived and not be told what to do.
How did the changes in women's clothes reflect their changing roles.
The change in their clothes was the first step in them trying to obtain more freedom. Changing their clothing would be a symbol that they want to be more independent.
A New Revolution in Science
Einstein's Theory of Relativity
While scientists had found that light travels the same speed no matter what direction compared to the Earth, Einstein theorized that other things such as space and time are not.
Space and time will change when compared to an object moving at the speed of light - about 186,000 miles per second. This is called the Theory of Relativity.
Einstein's ideas had changed not only the things in the science world but in the way people viewed the world as well.
Why were Einstein's ideas upsetting to so many people? -- We believe that Einstein's ideas were so upsetting because it was changing the way people were viewing the world and it was also changing the science world as well.
Change - To make or become different
Theory of Relativity
Freud treated patients with psychological problems, and from these experiences he created a theory about the human mind. He believed that much of the human behavior is irrational.
He called the irrational part of the brain "the unconscious". In the unconscious, a number of drives existed, especially pleasure seeking drives that the conscious did not know and/or think about.
In what ways were Freud's ideas as revolutionary as Einstein's? -- Freud's ideas were as revolutionary because the way he thought of the brain with having multiple parts and one of them controlling parts of your life without you even thinking or knowing about it was quite unheard of amongst people and it changed the psychological word.
Conflict - To differ in opinions or have opposing viewpoints, usually based on self interest
Revolution in the Arts
Artists rebel against tradition
Artists decided that they were done with real world paintings. They rather wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination.
Expressionist painters such as Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky painted with bold colors and distorted or exaggerated forms.
Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky
Georges Barque of France and Pablo Picasso of Spain invented Cubism in 1907 after being inspired by Traditional African Art.
Cubism transformed natural shapes into geometric forms, such as breaking them down into different parts using sharp angles and edges.
Surreaslim was an art form of linking the imaginary world with real life. It was inspired by Freud's ideas of art.
the term Surreal means "above or beyond reality".
How was surrealism connected with Freud’s ideas?
Surrealism was the art of linking the real world with imagination, and Freud's ideas had to do with human imagination.
Composers try new styles
Composers started to move away from traditional styles. Russian composer Igor Stravinsky used irregular rhythms in his ballot masterpiece
The Rite of Spring
Jazz started to grow in popularity in the United States, Jazz was developed by musicians, mainly black people in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago. Jazz was most popular in the US and Europe. Jazz seemed to capture the new freedom of age.
Creation of Jazz
What aspects of earlier music did new composers rebel against?
They didn't like how diverse earlier music was, they wanted to make music unique to their country to be more nationalistic.
Literature in the 1920s
The war had made people question the reason and progress of certain ideas.
This then led to people having doubts about religious beliefs as well as doubts in the future
T.S. Elliot was an American poet. While living in Europe he wrote that the society had lost its spiritual values.
Elliot went on to explain that it was like a "wasteland" and that the area was drained of hope and faith.
1921, William Butler Yeats wrote in a poem entitled, "The Second Coming": “Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; / Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.”
Writers Reflect Society's Concerns
The war ended up leaving a mark on a lot of writers in Europe
Authors like Franz Kafka would end up writing dark books such as Kafka's The Trail and The Castle.
Irish author James Joyce ended writing a very well known book, Ulysses, that described a day of three different people that lived in Dublin
While writing this book, Joyce wanted the sentences to be written in such a way that could portray the thinking of a human mind.
Wikipedia page for the book
Why did writers’ visions of the present and future change?
Writers would end up writing stories that were eerie and dark
Values & Beliefs
Thinkers React to Uncertainties
A lot people turned to a certain type of philosophy called
A big leader in this type of philosophy was French philosopher Jean Paul Sartre
What existentialists beliefs were that there real universal meaning to life and that people create their own life's meaning through choices that they make
The existentialists were largely inflected by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
Nietzsche wrote that Western ideas on such topics as politics, reason and progress really did change people's actions and creative mannerisms.
That is why Nietzsche urged the people to go back to the ancient times where people displayed strength and because of this idea Italy's and Germany's government was changed in the 1930s.
How might have Nietzsche’s ideas have influenced politicians?
Politicians were influenced by this idea because they wanted to be the hero that would return the county to better, brighter times.
Jean Paul Sartre
Values & Beliefs
William Butler Yeats