Reasons for decolonisation in West Africa (Gold Coast 1947- Most advanced…
Reasons for decolonisation in West Africa
Post WW2 Britain wanted Africa to become an economic asset in the sense of trading partners instead of extracting raw materials for themselves.
Colonial Development Cooperation was created, along with the idea of 'trusteeship' giving the indigenous people more self governance so it leads to self governing countries loyal to the crown.
Rise of educated Africans post WW2 led to the Empire giving more African representation.
Nigeria - a region that was regionally and ethnically divided so GB believed it should be a federation of separate states
1946- Richards Constitution increased African representation but GB retained power with a Governor.
Nationalism caused Richards constitution to be replaced with a 1951 Macpherson Constitution. This extended the franchise, it created a national council of ministers responsible for 185-seat federal house of representatives. This stimulated the growth of political parties.
Elections were held in 1954- Govt. consisted of 3 GB officials and 9 ministers from political parties representing the 3 regions.
GB developed more power to regional Govt. to try and pacify ethnic/regional tensions.
10/1960- Nigeria was given its independence after the 1959 elections.
1947- Most advanced African colony- Cohen- political maturity and fitness to rule themselves. However not realistic until another 25 years.
Nkrumah however would become an authoritarian leader to remain in power, nonetheless he would become a figurehead for the African countries wanting independence.
6/3/1957 Gold Coast became an independent country and took the name Ghana.
1957-elections carried out with full adult suffrage
1956- the GB mandate of Togoland wanted to join the Gold Coast
1950- Nkrumah was imprisoned but in 1951 the CPP won 2/3 assembly seats.
was released and appointed prime minister in 1952 with the CPP as government ministers.
1946- Burns Constitution created a legislative council of 12GB nominees and 18 elected Africans...however ultimate power was still given to GB governor.
Kwame Nkrumah founded the Convention Peoples Party which pressurised the GB into giving more indigenous control.
This led to a larger legislation council but still the power was all the GB governors.
Sierra Leone and The Gambia- regional tensions began in both places after WW2.
1961- Sierra Leone became independent
1965- Gambia got its independence
GB colonial administrators were compelled to introduce constitutional reforms leading to independence far more quicker than they had predicted.