CHAPTER 10 (Arousal Theory
A theory of motivation suggesting that people…
A theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.
Theory X: Manager believes employees will work for reward (benefits) or threatened by punishment.
Theory Y: Manager believes employees are internally motivated to do good work
Nonverbal Expressions of emotion-
Divided into 6 fundamental emotions - happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise and anger; contempt embarrasment shame amusement and sympathy
Facial Feedback hypothesis- facial muscles send signals to the brain and the signals help the brain recognize the emotion one is feeling.
Cognitive arousal theory
theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced.
Cognitive Mediational Theory
theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction.
Discrete Emotion Theory
claim that there is a small number of core emotions
Common Sense Theory
The theory that emotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of the physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulus (for example, feeling fear because of trembling).psychological reaction leads to naming of emotion
stimulus-> autonomic arousal-> emotion
The theory that an emotion-provoking stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, providing the conscious mental experience of the emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the physiological arousal. psychological reaction & emotion at same time
argued that different emotions could not be associated with specific physiological changes because autonomic nervous system responses are too diffuse and slow to account for rapid and differentiated emotional responses.
Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
A two-factor theory stating that for an emotion to occur, there must be (1) physiological arousal and (2) a cognitive interpretation or explanation of the arousal, allowing it to be labeled as a specific emotion.
-experience visceral arousal, see situational cues, combine patterns of arousal with external cues and label emotion
Motivational Conflicts Sometimes the urge to do something worthy or good or pleasurable is directly opposed by the fact that it involves pain or inconvenience or work.
Approach/approach- two attractive goals
Avoidance/avoidance- two unattractive goals
Approach/avoidance- a goal that has an attractive and unattractive aspects.
The desire to behave in a certain way in order to gain some external reward or to avoid some undesirable consequence.
The desire to behave in a certain way because it is enjoyable or satisfying in and of itself.text
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs according to priority, which assumes that basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused- top to bottom (self actualization, esteem, love/belonging, safety, physiological)
achievement motive -an impulse to master challenges and reach a high standard of excellence. Both personality and situational factors influence achievement motivation. (Thematic Apperception Test)
Yerkes-Dodson Law- the psychological principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal. represented by u curve
Opponent Process Theory
The theory that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors
Drive Reduction Theory
A theory of motivation suggesting that biological needs create internal states of tension or arousal--called drives--which organisms are motivated to reduce.
-certain drives (ex. hunger, sex, thirst) motivate us to minimize averse states.
An external stimulus that motivates behavior (for example, money or fame).
-External stimuli regulate motivational drives
-shows you can be motivated by positive drives
-one of the major theories of motivation and suggests that behavior is motivated by a desire for reinforcement or incentives
Drive internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension.
Social vs Biological Motives -
Social- originate in social experiences, such as need for achievement
Biological- originate in bodily needs, such as hunger
A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, or either sex.
Sexual Response Cycle ( Masters and Johnson)
- Desire- the physical, concerns with motivation desire and personality
- Excitement- presence of love object, touching, kissing
- Orgasm- Orgasm.
The peaking of sexual pleasure with release of sexual tension and muscular contractions in a spasmodic, involuntary, and voluntary pattern. May last 3-25 seconds and may have slight clouding of the consciousness.
- Resolution- return of body to it's resting state
Psychological factors in sex motivation-
presence of love object, fantasy, erotic material
Hunger Motivation refers to the drive that living beings have to eat as a means of satisfying hunger. This is a primary drive and what makes training animals, and controlling people, so effective. Even though most humans are capable of living for extended periods of time without eating, we are all familiar with the hunger pangs and cravings that go with not eating for several hours. This is what makes food such an effective tool for behavior management.