Validity and reliability of development indicators and indices (human…
Validity and reliability of development indicators and indices
human development index (HDI)
Composite measure of development. it includes three basic components of human development:
Education index- expected years of schooling
Standard of living - income adjusted to local cost of lving
Considered by the UN more reliable than indicators such as gross national income (GNI)
This is because it is a compiste measure of development which means that is observes three sets of numbers
Varies between zero and 1.0 (maximum)
For a country to have a high index they need to have a relaitvely high index for all the three components
For example: A country with a high purchusing power (standard of living), but a low life expectancy and a low education index with consequently have only a medium HDI
This causes it however to be difficult to know to tell which of the factors influenced the level of development of a country the mos
Does not solely concentrate on economic development, and takes into consideration that there are other, more social, ways to measure human development.
Some indications like safety are absent
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
Firstly introduced in 2010 by the United Nations
The Index measures gender inequalities in three main aspects:
1- Reproductive Health - Maternal mortality ratio and adolescence birth rates
2- Gender Empowerment - Measured through the proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by women, and the the proportion of adult females : males over the age of 25 who received secondary experience
3- Economic Status - Measured through the calculation of male and females over the age of 15, involved in the labour force
Reveals gender disparities in labour market participation
Literacy and Primary Education are factors considered within the data used to estimate the index
Reproductive health is taken into consideration when estimating the index
For example, the use of national parliamentary representation excludes participation at the local government level and elsewhere in community and public life.
GII has some limitations.
The labour market dimension lacks information on employment, having an adequate job and unpaid work that is mostly done by women.
Asset ownership, child care support, gender-based violence and participation in community decision-making are also not captured in the GII, mainly due to limited data availability.
A low index indicates the successful participation of women within society (more rights and freedoms) therefore, a high index indicates the opposite conditions
Index that allows to develop the understanding on the level of gender inequality with different territories