English Language paper 2 - Language and Region theorists. (William Labov -…
English Language paper 2 - Language and Region theorists.
Milroy's Belfast Study -
Closed Network - A person whose personal contacts tend to know eachother.
Open Network - an individual whose contacts may not know eachother.
There are different kinds of links between people such as relatives, neighbours, workmates, friends ect.
Individuals linked in several ways such as jobs, family, activities, network ties said to ne multiplex (open)
investigated correlation between interrogation of individuals in community and the way they speak.
She gave individuals a Network Strength Score based on persons knowledge of other people in the community, work place and leisure activities to give a score of 1 to 5 (5 is the highest network strength score)
Closed and open can usually be applied to any language variation.
William Labov New York Study (1966) -
Studied how often final or preconsonantal (r) was sounded in words like beer, bare and guard.
Use of variable has considerable prestige in NYC.
Of the 4 classes tested (lower class, working class, lower middle class, upper middle class) lower middle class most suspectible to overt prestige of the preconsonantal "r" differed most between incidence in casual speech style (4%) to most speech style (70%).
All 3 lower classes more aware of the prestige preconsonantal "r" when they think about it, more likely to change the way they speak to reflect how they should sound or how most people sound.
William Labov - Martha's Vineyard Study -
Martha's Vineyard is an island about 3 miles of New England (East Coast USA) with a population of around 6000.
Over 40,000 visitors come every summer.
Focused on realisations and dipthongs (aw and ay as in mouce and mice)
Interviewed a number of people from different ages/ethnic groups on the island.
Found younger (31-45 years) speakers, movement seemed to be taking away from pronunciations associated with standard New English norms and towards pronunciation associated with conservative and charateristically vinyard speakers.
Heaviest users of type of pronunciation were young men who actively thought themselves to identify as Vineyarders.
Patterns emerged despite extensive exposure to speakers to the educational system; some college educated boys from Martha's Vineyard were extremely heavy users of vernacular vowels.