Theme 1: Matter and Measurement (Classification of Matter (States of…
Theme 1: Matter and Measurement
Classification of Matter
States of Matter and Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Matter and the Macroscopic and Particulate Levels
Mixtures: Heterogeneous and Homogeneous
Elements and Atoms
Refer to Periodic table of the elements
Compounds and Molecules
A pure substance like sugar, salt or water, which are composed of two or more different elements held together by chemical bonds, is referred to as a chemical compound.
A compound has distinctly different characteristics from its parent elements, and it has a definite percentage composition (by mass) of it's combining elements.
Some compounds are composed of ions (NaCl), which are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Other compounds consist of molecules, the smallest discrete units that retain the composition and chemical characteristics of the compound.
Physical Properties of Matter
Properties that can be observed without changing the composition of a substance.
Colour, State of Matter, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Density, Solubility, Electric Conductivity, Malleability, Ductility and Viscosity
Extensive and Intensive Properties
Extensive Properties depend on the amount of substances, therefor the mass and volume of the substance affects the property. Properties like Mass, Volume and the amount of energy transferred when burning gasoline are all extensive properties.
Intensive Properties do not depend on the amount of substance
Physical and Chemical Changes of Matter
Physical Changes: Changes in the physical properties, it does not result in a new chemical substance being produced. The particles present before the change and after the change are the same. An example of physical change is the melting of a solid or the evaporation of a liquid.
Chemical Changes: Changes in the chemical properties, the reactants are transformed (changed) into one or more different substances (the products). This change can be represented by a chemical equation, N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g)