Social class and educational attainment (Cultural capital (Language codes…
Social class and educational attainment
Poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income.
Examples are; lack of space in housing, lack of equipment for schools, lack of attendance because of being unwell due to the housing issues e.g. damp.
Poor diet and poor health- Marilyn Howard (2001) Young people from poor homes have lower intakes of vitamins and minerals. Results in more absences from school, more time missed and also lack concentration.
20% of children eligible for free school meals don't take this up because they're embarrassed.
In 2006 33% children receiving free school meals gained 15 or more A*- C GCSEs.
Compared with 61% of pupils not receiving free school meals. Nearly 90% of 'failing' schools are located in deprived areas.
Being deprived of cultural attributes necessary for educational success.
Sugarman- cultural deprivation based on the view that different classes have different cultures. The working class place too much emphasis on enjoying themselves and living in the moment instead of putting in the work for educational success.
putting things off in order to get an education and a better job and higher wages in the long term.
living in the moment, for example getting a lower wage job so you have money to go out.
Goodman- Study to investigate link between poverty and low educational attainment. Cultural factors that helped explain low achievement among poor children.
How often parents read books to young children.
Attitudes to education.
Involvement in schooling.
Found in middle class meaning that their educational ability is higher.
Bordieu claims lack of possession of culture capital shapes opportunity in society.
Ownership of wealth, e.g. expensive cars, housing. This means children can be placed in private schools.
Refers to form of knowledge a person has, e.g. education. This means they have the knowledge to help children with homework.
Networks and friendships with valuable social contacts, e.g. knowing head teachers/professors. This helps children get into good schools by knowing head teachers/ professors.
Possession of status, e.g. respected by community. Speeches or role allocation
Language codes in education
short hand codes where meanings aren't fully explained. Short, unfinished sentences, often used and these codes aren't suited to expressing complex ideas.
meanings are filled in and more explicit, sentences tend to be longer and more complex. This type of speech code encourages sophisticated learning.
Ball et al showed how middle class parents are able to use their cultural capital to play the system to ensure their children are accepted into the best schools.
parents who constantly watch over what their child is doing.
Interactionist perspective on education
The processes within school explain differential achievement.
Rosenthal and Jacobsen- give false information to primary school teachers. Students with high IQ told it was low and vice versa. Progress of students measured. Students who teachers told had a low IQ performed worse regardless of their IQ score.
Evaluation- Concentrate on processes within education, don't explain where wider class inequalities come from.
Labelling is very deterministic.
Don't look at social policies and impact they can have on social classes.