Gender in the 20th Century (THEORY - TRUDGILL (found that men in Norwich…
Gender in the 20th Century
THEORY - SARA MILLS + JULIA STANLEY
Interested in the disproportionate number of inappropriate lexical items used to describe women
THEORY - THE DIFFERENCE APPROACH
DEBORAH TANNEN - different subcultures and experiences and how they are informed affect language choices, male and female differences in language starts from childhood
claims stereotypes between the sexes are false
biological differences do not impact linguistic differences, it is social differences
THEORY - TRUDGILL
found that men in Norwich used more non standard forms than women regardless of social class
men used more covert prestige - this is describes a high status gain from using non-standard forms
THEORY - THE DOMINANCE APPROACH
assumes that men are the most dominant and more powerful than women
ZIMMERMAN AND WEST - found 98% of interruptions were made by en in mixed sex conversations
THEORY - LAKOFF
women are less authoritative in roles using more interrogatives, hedges ad intensifiers
THEORY - LABOV
women are more advanced than men as far as new changes to language are concerned
MARKED TERM - WORDS THAT ARE ASCRIBED WITH LESS PRESTIGE THAN THE STANDARD FORM e.g. 'girl' instead of 'woman'
GENERIC MALE TERMS USED TO REFERENCE BIG IDEOLOGIES IN SOCIETY e.g. 'mankind'
WOMEN SECONDARY TO MEN IN MOST CONSTRUCTS e.g. 'Mr and Mrs Smith'
SUFFIXES TO CHANGE INTO FEMALE e.g. 'waiter' and 'waitress'
GENDER STEREOTYPES AND MARKED TERMS e.g. 'girl' 'male'
GENDER STEREOTYPED METAPHORS e.g. 'mother nature'
In the early 20th century, EDWARD SAPIR + BENJAMIN LEE WARF formulated their hypothesis about language and argued that our world view influences the language we use and the way we think - LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM
this can be lined to gender theories and language change because as our attitudes towards gender change because of the language we use