-Use presence, touch (with permission), verbalization, and demeanor to remind patients that they are not alone and to encourage expression or clarification of needs, concerns, unknowns, and questions.
-Familiarize patient with the environment and new experiences or people as needed.
-Interact with patient in a peaceful manner.
-Accept patient’s defenses; do not dare, argue, or debate.
-Reinforce patient’s personal reaction to or expression of pain, discomfort, or threats to well-being (e.g., talking, crying, walking, other physical or nonverbal expressions).
-Help patient determine precipitants of anxiety that may indicate interventions.
-If the situational response is rational, use empathy to encourage patient to interpret the anxiety symptoms as normal.