If used effectively, weakens behaviour:
- Use extinction - ignore it
- Negative Reinforcement - take away negative stimulus
Not preferred for changing behaviour as:
- does not eliminate undesirable behaviour
- causes child to resist the punishment, he may perform undesirable behaviour at another time when teacher is not around
Instil punishment as last resort when:
- Undesirable behaviour is so frequent, no desirable behaviour to reinforce
- Problem behaviour is intense that someone (or child) might get hurt
Operant Conditioning modifies & develop new behaviours (Effective reinforcement should make lesser use of punishment)
- Adding a familiar antecedent to signal a desired response
- Prompts - Established relationships between antecedents and behaviours to facilitate learning new ones
- Normal antecedent should occur before prompting antecedent. Don't give extra help before child tries, if not child reliant on prompts rather than on the normal antecedent.
- Gradually eliminate prompts for child to self-regulate and decrease dependence.
- connecting simple responses in sequence to form a more complex response
T says: "Take out textbook.", "Good, come to the front and sit down in groups", "Now we are ready."
- Repeating this daily, class will automatically know what to do next time
- process of reinforcing behaviour that closely resembles final version of targeted behaviour
- Differential Reinforcement: Reinforcing only behaviours that meet a given criterion and not the ones that fail
- Shifting Criterion for Reinforcement: Gradually changing response criterion for reinforcement in the direction of the target behaviour. Cannot stay with each new requirement any longer than necessary to meet the criterion, if not student's behaviour stops there.
Social Cognitive Learning Theory
[Albert Bandura, 1977]
- Children learn much of their behaviour through observing others and modelling behaviours they observed.
E.g Teacher is in a stressful situation. Children observe the actions of the teacher and learn the possible response in future.
- looks for consistency and fairness in teachers' responses
- Watching models can strengthen/weaken observers learned inhibitions over their behaviours. They know what they can or cannot get away with.
- Relevance to the observer.
- When observed actions produces a noticeable effect
- To gain students' attention for observational learning
- Accentuate essential feature of the performance to be learned
- Subdivide activities into parts
- Highlight component skills
- Give students opportunities between observations to practice what they have seen
- Helpful when modelled activities are rehearsed/practise immediately. E.g. person imaging, visualising action
- Code information into images like mental pictures, verbal symbols, and store into memory
- Converting idea/image/memory into Action
- Feedback is important. Self-observation through video. Verbal feedback through teachers
- Remodel correct performance after identifying problems in performance
- One is more likely to enact a modelled behaviour if it results in a valued/desired outcome than an unrewarded or punished one
- Rewarded modelling is more effective than modelling alone in fostering imitative behaviour
- Acts that involve effort and unpleasant aspects are more likely to be imitated if a model is observe being rewarded for doing them
- When models are seen experiencing negative outcomes, inclination of others to behave likewise is diminished
e.g. Child who see modelled behaviour punished are less likely to act on what they have learned
- When behaviour is controlled by Teacher's intimidation, child may act up depending if intimidator is present.
- Forbidden behaviour cannot go unpunished as others may observe and repeat it. It must be followed by negative consequences.
E.g. Child acts aggressive in class, Teacher punishes child, others observe. But when child acts aggressive and goes unpunished, others act aggressive
Types of Punishments
- Use of aversive/painful events to decrease incidence of behaviour "getting something bad" e.g scolding
(-) Timeouts may be a negative reinforcement and strengthen misbehaviour e.g. sending child to Principal's office repeatedly might cause child to want to stay out of the classroom hence continuing misbehaviour
- Take away positive reinforcers - child's privileges e.g. Play-time taken away & begin time-out corner
- Child must not avoid/escape punishment once punishment is instilled
- Timeouts - cutting off access to all reinforcement for short period of time
Use of Punishments
- Child must understand If he behaves acceptably, he can earn back his privileges
- Use warning signal to child for him to behave; this minimise the need for future punishment
- Teacher must be calm when administering punishment, based on matter-of-fact, directed at behaviour (not child), if not child might imitate the aggressive teacher
Most effective management strategies by Singaporean Teachers:
- the extreme negative attitudes child hold towards teachers' classroom management strategies could limit their effectiveness.
- Highlighting problem and explaining
- Talking in private
- Discussing with class
- Calling parents
- Asking to see parents
- Send out of class
- Removing privileges
- Send to Principal's office