Catholicism: the Council of Trent on justification (The theological…
Catholicism: the Council of Trent on justification
Developments with Catholicism, 1490-1545
The theological schools at Trent during the debate on justification
The Tridentine debates on justification
The initial six questions (On 22 June 1546)
What is to be understood when it is said that 'humanity is justified by faith'?
What role do human works and the sacraments play in justification, whether before, during or after it?
What are the cause of justification? What part is playes by God? And what is required of humans?
What precedes, accompanies and follows justification?
By what proofs is the Catholic doctrine supported?
What is justification, nominally and actually, and what is to be understood when it is said that 'humanity is justified'?
Crucial questions required clarification in the light of the Protestant challenge.
What is the precise nature of the active role of the human will in justification, given the general Protestant tendency to assert the passivity of the will?
What is the relationship between justification and the sacramenta mortuorum(死者的聖禮?) of baptism and penance?
Can believers know with any degree of certitude whether they are, in fact, justified?
Is justification merely remissio peccatorum(赦罪), or does it necessarily include intrinisc santification trough the action of grace within human?
Is it necessary for humans to dispose themselves towards justification, and if so, is this disposition to be considered meritorious(有功勞的) in any sense?
What is the precise relation between faith and good works?
The Tridentine decree on justification
The post-Tridentine debates on justification