CLINICAL INTERVIEWING PART 2 - Listening and relationship development (3 -…
CLINICAL INTERVIEWING PART 2 - Listening and relationship development
3 - Basic Attending, Listening and Action Skills
Difference between positive and negative attending behaviours
How ethnocultural background and diversity can affect how clients respond to attending and listening behaviours
How and why therapists use nondirective listening behaviours, including: silence, paraphrasing, clarification, relfection of feeling, and summarization
Paraphrase (or Reflection of Content)
The Simple Paraphrase
The Sensory-Based Paraphrase
The Metaphorical Paraphrase
Intentionally Directive Paraphrases
Several forms of clarification:
a restatement of what a client said and a closed question, in either order.
a restatement imbedded in a double question (an either/or question including 2 or more choices of response for the client
clarification used when you don't quite hear what a client said and you need to recheck
2 general guidelines for clarifying:
Admit your confusion over what the client has said.
Try a restatement or ask for clarification, repetition, or illustration. Asking for a specific example can be especially useful.
Reflection of feeling
Guidelines: be informal, collaborative, supportive and hopeful.
The natural inclination many therapists have toward reassuring clients
Therapists should use reflective, empathic listening regularly, whereas reassurance should come in carefully considered, small doses.
How and why therapists use directive listening behaviours, including: interpretive reflection of feeling, interpretation, feeling validation, and confrontation.
Client-centered directives: focus in on exactly what the client is talking about, but are aimed at a deeper level.
Therapist-centered directives: typically move clients away from what they're talking about and toward what the therapist deems important.
Interpretive Reflection of Feeling
Psychoanalytic or "Classical" Interpretations
4 - Directives: Questions and Action Skills
Section 1: Using general and therapeutic questions
The benefits and liabilities of using questions with clients
How asking some questions can be inappropriate and how asking other questions can be unethical
Guidelines for using questions in an interview
1. Prepare your clients for questions
2. Don't use general questions without nondirective listening
3. Make your questions relevant to client concerns and goals
4. Use questions to elicit concrete behavioural examples and positive visions of the future
5. Approach sensitive areas cautiously
Several different theory-based assessment and therapeutic questions
The many general questions available to therapists, how to use them, and their usual effects (and side effects)
Indirect or implied questions
Section 2: Using directive interviewing behaviours
Why directives and action skills are more or less effective with different clients
A range of different directives and action skills, including explanation, suggestion, agreement-disagreement, approval-disapproval, advice, self-disclosure, and urging
The nature and use of directives and action skills
5 - Evidence-Based Relationships