Factors Influencing health status and burden of disease (Dietary risks …
Factors Influencing health status and burden of disease
Nearly 40% of all smoking-related deaths are due to cardiovascular disease.
Tobacco smoke damages the airways, leading to many respiratory conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
low birth weight
Tobacco smoke while pregnant increases the risk of having a child with a low birth weight. More likely to have an undeveloped immune system, making them more susceptible to infection
increased risk of infection
Tobacco smoke can lower immune system functioning and increase the risk of contracting infectious disease such as upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia
many forms of cancer
Tobacco smoke can cause a fault in the body's cells as they divide, which can lead to cancer.
Alcohol is filtered through the liver, excessive consumption can cause liver scarring and lead to chronic liver disease
weight gain and obesity
Alcohol contains kilojules, and therefore energy, which means it can increase the chances of the individual gaining weight. Over a period of time this can lead to obesity, which can lead to other conditions such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers.
throat and mouth cancer
aggression, irrational behaviour; depression
Behaviours of people affected by alcohol can change, which puts a strain on relationships and increasing the risk of mental health issues. Those under the influence of alcohol are more likely to act impulsively and take risks.
High BMI (body mass index)
type 2 diabetes
High body mass index is the greatest risk for type 2 diabetes. The pancreas cannot produce insulin or cannot use insulin effectively.
chronic kidney disease
High body mass index increases the risk of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes, which are two significant risk factors for kidney disease
Relationship between high body mass index and rates of some cancer including colorectal cancer and breast cancer.
High body mass index puts extra strains on joints, which can increase the chances of developing arthritis.
Puts a greater strain on the heart, which increases the risk of hypertension and of high blood cholesterol, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
mental health conditions
High body mass index can contribute to conditions such as anxiety and depression.
underconsumption of dairy
Underconsumption of dairy can lead to weaken bones due to the absence of high calcium intake, this may lead to osteoporosis and arthritis.
high intake of fat
The greatest impact of high intake of fat is in relation to high BMI, which increases morbidity and mortality in relation to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers.
underconsumption of fruit
Underconsumption of fruit may lead to weight gain and obesity as the individual is not consuming fruit which helps stay fuller for longer, meaning the individual does not need to eat energy-dense foods.
high intake of salt
High levels of sodium in the body causes excess fluid to be drawn out of the cells which can increase blood volume and contribute to hypertension.
underconsumption of vegetables
Can lead to decrease immune system functioning, which can increase the incidence of conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects.
high intake of sugar
Sugar eaten in excess are stored as adipose tissues, which can lead to weight gain and then to obesity. This also runs the risk of type 2 diabetes and some cancers.
low intake of fibre
Fibre adds bulk to faeces and assists in keeping the digestive system clean. A low intake of fibre can increase the risk of colorectal cancer, including bowel cancer.
low intake of iron
Iron is essential in forming the 'haem' part of haemoglobin, which is the oxygen carrying part of the blood. Low intake of iron is a major cause of iron deficiency and anaemia.