1988 Education Reform Act
Introduced a national curriculum in England and Wales. A national curriculum is a set of subjects or topic areas that are taught in all primary and secondary schools to ensure all students across country are given an equal education. Giving a specific outline of what children should be taught, along with skills and knowledge they should acquire.
A system of national assessment where students were required to be tested throughout their education.
Schools required to publish exam results.
Schools allowed to specialise in specific subjects e.g. High Tunstall College of Science more vocational education.
Regular inspections of schools and colleges by OFSTED with results made public.
Funding of schools based on the number of students attending.
the idea that schools and education should be viewed as a business and focus specifically on 'customers' and competing with other schools to be the best like with businesses.
Involvement of parents within a child's education and the power parents have in order to help their child to succeed. This idea reinforces the importance of parents in children's education and the freedom of choice around schooling.
The money schools receive being directly linked to how many pupils the schools attract which means schools are given an incentive to work hard and get top results so more students attend.
Schools receiving money for each student and based on their academic achievement, e.g. more money for students with higher SATs results and predicted grades.
The money schools receive being directly linked to how many pupils the school attract which means schools are given an incentive to work hard and get top results so more students attend.
Schools receiving free money for pupils based on the social class of each student meaning the more students who are from a middle class background, the more money the school receives.
Parents didn't have to send their children to the local school, they could apply to other schools meaning schools work hard to attract students.
Parents having the choice whether their child had to be educated and attend school
Parents were given no choice in the school their child was to attend, children were sent to the school they lived closest to and no other factors taken into account regardless of whether the child had applied to other schools.
New vocationalism received a lot of criticism. Finn claimed there was hidden political agenda:
Providing cheap labour for employers and kept the pay rates of young workers low.
Reduced politically embarrassing unemployment statistics
Possibly intended to reduce crime by removing young people from the streets.
1944 Education Act
Previously referred to as the 'Butler act', this was put into place based on the idea of meritocracy. The tripartite system was put in place where students were placed into a school based upon their performance in the
Students attended 1/3 schools but very few technical schools being built so most students either attended a grammar school or secondary modern school. Creating
Students who performed best on 11+ exam were given a place in a grammar school. Where students were taught academic subjects and were mainly from middle class backgrounds.
Secondary modern school-
Schools were made up of mainly working class students who hadn't performed well in their 11+ exam.
Students taught non-academic curriculum tailored towards manual jobs.
High proportion of those who went here went into typical working class jobs.
1965 Comprehensive Schools
A comprehensive school is a secondary state school that doesn't take into account wealth or status of the parents of the child and isn't based upon educational ability.
Positives of Comprehensive Schools-
The comprehensive education system meant social inequalities are abandoned from education system and selection process.
All pupils within the same area attend the same school and have the same educational opportunities.
Pupils would have more opportunities to gain qualifications.
Negatives of Comprehensive Schools- Sociologists have argued that comprehensives have resulted in 'dumbing down' of education with academically stronger students held back. Also inequality continued within education system through setting and streaming so didn't abolish social class inequalities as intended.
Policies and Gender
GIST- Girls into science and technology
WISE- women into science and engineering
CC4G- computer club for girls
In 1999, government issued primary schools with grants which allowed them to hold extra writing classes for boys to help push up their SATs scores.
The breakthrough programme in 2005 was introduced to help teenage boys improve their exam performances by having after school classes and mentoring available.
Children's centre, services available for early years, foundation stage, education, training and employment advice. The children's hub, midwifery, parenting and family support, speech and language therapy, support for child minders.
Work with families adopts a "think family" approach, way of thinking and working. Was introduced under labour government. Teaches early socialisation.
Removal of EMA & raising tuition fees
Education Maintenance Allowance- for students 16-19, who are unpaid work based learning environment, parent shave a specific income. Introduced 1999, scrapped 2010. Replaced by £180 million bursary scheme, students from poor background. Pays funds to educational establishment whereas EMA pays to students.
Raising tuition fees- Under 1988 labour government, ave UK tuition fees increased drastically. Teaching and higher education act, test to determine tuition fees. Dependent on family income. 1999-2000 tuition fees £1000. 2004 £3000, 2010- £9000.
What is a policy?
A policy is a set of ideas or plans put in place by those in government in order to be followed up and made in to law based on a social, cultural and economic basis.
The Conservative Government believed youth unemployment was as a result of school failing to teach work skills.
Known as 'new vocationalism'
Policies: Ways of showing a ranking of educational achievement by school and area you live in, to help promote school with best results. Producing unequal schools that reproduce social class inequalities. Beneficial for attainment helping targets to be met. Public league tables - helps parents, encourages marketisation for education. 1988 Education reform act encourages marketisation as parents more likely to send children to a school with best results.