Unit 4 Cells to organisms (Types of Cells (Nucleus-DNA is found in the…
Unit 4 Cells to organisms
Types of Cells
Vacuoles-Store waste products, nutrients, and water. In plant cells it also store nutrients and regulates turgor pressure in the cell.
Nucleus-DNA is found in the nucleus, RNA is also made here; surrounded by a membrane; controls all cell activites
Ribosome-Assembles proteins; free ribosomes make proteins that will stay in the cell. Attached ribosomes (attached to the ER) make proteins that will be transported out of the cell.
Nucleolus-This produces ribosomes; found in the nucleus
Lysosome-Contains digestive enzymes necessary for breaking down materials within a cell
Cytoplasm-Part of the cell that is outside the nucleus; contains organelles and provides the perfect environment for chemical reactions to take place
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum-Assembles membrane lipids and detoxifies the cell of drugs; no ribosomes on this organelle.
Centriole-Play a role in mitosis (cell division), in animal cells only - Ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. Three microtubules in each group. These are part of the cytoskeleton. Inherited from your father.
Golgi Apparatus/Golgi Bodies-Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
Chloroplast-Use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. Found in plant cells and some protists. They reflect green light while absorbing all other colors. *contain DNA
Cytoskeleton-Helps maintain cell shape. Its primary importance is in cell motility. It makes the cell move internally and externally.
Made of microfilaments and microtubules. (protein strands)
Mitochondria-Provides energy to the cell. Have a double membrane. The outside is smooth but the inner is highly folded to increase its surface area. Cellular respiration is performed here, making energy (ATP) for the cell. Has its own DNA and ribosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum-Proteins are made on the endoplasmic reticulum's ribosomes. They are collected inside the endoplasmic reticulum and transported throughout the cell. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell.
Cell Wall-Thick outer layer in plant cells. Made of the carbohydrate cellulose. It maintains the shape of these cells and creates a protective barrier. Fluid collects in the plant cell's vacuole and pushes against it, creating turgor pressure. Also found in fungi, algae, and some bacteria.
Chromatin/Chromosomes-plant and animal cell: strands that contain the genetic material that tells the cell how to function.
Flagella-Whip-like appendage that extends from the body; used for movement or for sensing the environment
Vesicles-A small structure made of a lipid bilayer used to transport materials through the cell.
Cilia-Slender cell extension that project outward from the cell - can be used for movement of the cell or to push materials past the cell.
Peroxisomes-Contain an enzyme that allows the breakdown of H₂O₂ (hydrogen peroxide) which is made by cell reactions and is toxic to the cell
Microtubule-part of the cytoskeleton - made of tubulin-used to move substances around the cell - framework of cell
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities.
Which gas is being produced by the plant? The gas that is being produced by the plant is oxygen.
Why is oxygen production a good measure of the rate of photosynthesis?
Oxygen is production is a good measure of the rate of photosynthesis because it measures how much of the oxygen the plant is letting go of.
Why does photosynthesis occur most slowly under the green light?
Photosynthesis occurs the most slowly under a green light because the chlorophyll is green and it causes it to take a larger amount of time to absorb the light.