Unit 4 Cells to Organisms ( (A small structure made of a lipid bilayer…
Unit 4 Cells to Organisms
Meiosis vs Mitosis
A type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
A process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in haploid cell
Function of Meiosis
Function of Mitosis
Cellular Reproduction & general growth and repair of the body.
Type of Reproduction (Meiosis)
Type of Reproduction (Mitosis)
Meiosis Occurs in
Humans, animals, plants, fungi
Mitosis Occurs in
Meiosis is Genetically
Mitosis is Genetically
Crossing Over (Meiosis)
Yes, mixing of chromosomes can occur.
Crossing Over (Mitosis)
No, crossing over can not occur.
Number of Divisions (Meiosis)
Number of Divisions (Mitosis)
Number of Cells produced in Meiosis
Number of Cells produced in Mitosis
Chromosome Number (Meiosis)
Reduced by half
Chromosome Number (Mitosis)
Remains the same
Steps of Mitosis
The steps of mitosis are Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis
Sex cells only: Female egg cells or Male sperm cells
Makes everything other than sex cells
Store waste products, nutrients, and water. In plant cells it also store nutrients, and regulates turgor pressure in the cell.
DNA is found in the nucleus, RNA is also made here; surrounded by a membrane; controls all cell activites
This produces ribosomes; found in the nucleus
Part of the cell that is outside the nucleus; contains organelles and provides the perfect environment for chemical reactions to take place
Play a role in mitosis (cell division), in animal cells only - Ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. Three microtubules in each group. These are part of the cytoskeleton. Inherited from your father.
Golgi Apparatus/Golgi Bodies
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
Contains digestive enzymes necessary for breaking down materials within a cell
Use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. Found in plant cells and some protists. They reflect green light while absorbing all other colors. *contain DNA
Double layer of phospholipids (lipid bilayer) that surrounds the cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Provides energy to cell. Have a double membrane. The outside is smooth but the inner is highly folded to increase its surface area. Cellular respiration is performed here, making energy (ATP) for the cell. Has its own DNA and ribosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Assembles membrane lipids and detoxifies the cell of drugs; no ribosomes on this organelle.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Proteins are made on the endoplasmic reticulum's ribosomes. They are collected inside the endoplasmic reticulum and transported throughout the cell. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell.
Assembles proteins; free ribosomes make proteins that will stay in the cell. Attached ribosomes (attached to the ER) make proteins that will be transported out of the cell.
Helps maintain cell shape. Its primary importance is in cell motility. It makes the cell move internally and externally.
Made of microfilaments and microtubules. (protein strands)
Thick outer layer in plant cells. Made of the carbohydrate cellulose. It maintains the shape of these cells and creates a protective barrier. Fluid collects in the plant cell's vacuole and pushes against it, creating turgor pressure. Also found in fungi, algae, and some bacteria.
plant and animal cell: strands that contain the genetic material that tells the cell how to function.
A small structure made of a lipid bilayer used to transport materials through the cell.
Slender cell extension that project outward from the cell - can be used for movement of the cell or to push materials past the cell.
Whip-like appendage that extends from the body; used for movement or for sensing the environment
Contain an enzyme that allows the breakdown of H₂O₂ (hydrogen peroxide) which is made by cell reactions and is toxic to the cell
part of the cytoskeleton - made of tubulin-used to move substances around the cell - framework of cell
Which molecules are reactants in photosynthesis?
CO₂ + H₂O
What are the products of photosynthesis?
O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆
Which molecules are reactants in Cellular Respiration?
O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆
What are the products of Cellular Respiration?
CO₂ + H₂O
I discovered that plants are made of cells.
I saw cells in cork and came up with the word "cells to describe them.
I discovered that animals are made of cells
I discovered that there are microscopic organisms in pond water.
I developed the cell theory and came to the conclusion that all cells come from other cells