Unit 4 Cells to Organisms (Definitions (Chloroplast- organelles in plant…
Unit 4 Cells to Organisms
Prokaryotic Cells- cells with no membrane around their nuclear material
Eukaryotic Cells- cells with a nucleus and a membrane around it
Cell Membrane- a structure that forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into and out of the cell
Nucleus- structure that controls all the activities of the cell
Chromatin- a material made of proteins and DNA in the nucleus that control the activities of the cell
Cytoplasm- a gel-like material containing many organelles to carry out the life processes of the cell
Organelles- the structures in the cytoplasm that carry out life processes in the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum- folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell
Ribosomes- organelles that make protein
Golgi bodies- stacks of membrane-covered sacs that package and move proteins to the outside of the cell
Mitochondria- organelles where food molecules are broken down and energy is released
Lysosomes- organelles that digest wastes and worn-out cell parts as well as break down food
Cell Wall- rigid structure outside the cell membrane that supports and protects a plant cell
Chloroplast- organelles in plant cells in which light energy is changed into chemical energy in the form of sugar
Tissues- groups of similar cells that do the same sort of work
Organ- a structure made up of different types of tissues that work together to do a particular job
Centriole- Bundles of microtubules that play a role organizing the movement of chromosomes during cell division
Vesicles- a small structure made of a lipid bilayer used to transport materials through the cell
Microtubule- part of the cytoskeleton - made of tubulin-used to move substances around the cell - framework of cell
Vacuoles- store waste products, nutrients, and water. In plant cells they also store nutrients, and regulates turgor pressure in the cell
Nucleolus- this produces ribosomes; found in the nucleus
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- assembles membrane lipids and detoxifies the cell of drugs; no ribosomes on this organelle
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- proteins are made on the endoplasmic reticulum's ribosomes. They are collected inside the endoplasmic reticulum and transported throughout the cell. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell
Cytoskeleton- Helps maintain cell shape. Its primary importance is in cell motility. It makes the cell move internally and externally.
Made of microfilaments and microtubules. (protein strands)
Cilia- Slender cell extension that project outward from the cell - can be used for movement of the cell or to push materials past the cell.
Flagella- Whip-like appendage that extends from the body; used for movement or for sensing the environment
Peroxisomes- Contain an enzyme that allows the breakdown of H₂O₂ (hydrogen peroxide) which is made by cell reactions and is toxic to the cell
Cells´ workings are compared to a business that operates 24 hours a day making dozens of different products.
The organelles that can be found in cytoplasm are endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, mitochondria, lysosomes, and vacuoles
Plant cells contain cell walls, differing them from animal cells.
Plant cells can create their own food.
Bacterial cells have no membrane-covered organelles
Cells differ in shape, size, and what is inside.
Cells are organized (smallest to largest) by cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
The shape of a cell can tell you the job the cell does.
A one-celled organism performs all life processes alone while many-celled organisms work together and depend on each other to survive.
Plant cells are more rectangular and boxy than other kinds of cells.
Animal cells are more circular or irregular
Animal and plant cells are eukaryotic cells.
Bacterial cells are prokaryotic.
Meiosis is a type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Function- Sexual reproduction
Type of Reproduction- Sexual
Occurs in- Humans, animals, plants, fungi
Is genetically different
Crossing Over- Yes, mixing of chromosomes can occur
Number Of Divisions- 2
Number Of Cells Produced- 4
Chromosome Number- Reduced by half
Meiosis Creates- Sex cells only: Female egg cells or male sperm cells
Steps of Meiosis- Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1, Cytokinesis, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2, Cytokinesis once again.
Mitosis is a process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in haploid cells
Function- cellular reproduction and general growth and repair of the body
Type of Reproduction- Asexual
Occurs in- all organisms
Is genetically identical
Crossing Over- No, crossing over can not occur
Number Of Divisions- 1
Number Of Cells Produced- 2
Chromosome Number- Remains the same
Steps of Mitosis- Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis
Mitosis Creates- makes everything other than sex cells
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Reactants of Photosynthesis- CO2 + H2O
Products of Photosynthesis- O2 + C6H12O6
Reactants of Cellular Respiration- O2 + C6H12O6
Carbon Dioxide- CO2
Leeuwenhoek- discovered that there are microscopic organisms in pond water
Schleiden- discovered that plants are made of cells
Hooke- saw cells in cork and decided to use the word "cells" to describe them
Schwann- discovered that animals are made of cells
Virchow- developed the cell theory and came to the conclusion that all cells come from other cells