The Division of Labour are couples becoming more equal? (Impact of paid…
The Division of Labour
are couples becoming more equal?
Argues that Y&W are exagerrated
Y&W's evidence wasn't convincing about males 'helping' their wives.
Husbands = more likely to help with childcare than housework
Father's role was define as 'taking an interest'
Warde and Hetherington (1993)
Sex-typing of domestic tasks = strong
Wives = 30x more likely to be the last person to have done the washing
Husbands = 4x more likely to be the last person to wash the car
Men would only carry out routine 'female' tasks when their partner were not there to do them.
March of progress view
Primary socialisation of children, meets emotional needs of the family, "Homemaker" - Housewife and not wage earner
Achieving success at work, provides for the family financially. "Breadwinner"
Symmetrical Family (Young and Wilmott)
Changes in female's positions
Male housework + childcare
Joint and segregated conjugal roles
Elizabeth Bott (1957):
Segregated conjugal roles
Couple = separate roles
male = breadwinner, female = homemaker
leisure = separate
Joint conjugal roles
couple = share housework and childcare
leisure = together
Impact of paid work
Analysis of nationally representative data - 1975,1987,1997
Trend towards: women = less domestic work than men
Increase in couples with equal division of labour.
Argues women working full-time = more equal division of labour at home.
Using time studies, he found - women did less domestic work than other women.
'new man' - taking responsibilities + equal housework
or does it mean - women = dual burden (paid work + domestic?) - feminist view
Problem with surveys = focus on easily quantifiable aspects e.g who performs each task + how much time spent on it
Fathers may help by performing specific childcare tasks, usually mother who take responsibility for child's security and well-being.
Supported by evidence from Ferri and Smith (1996), Dex and Ward (2007), Braun, Vincent and Ball (2011)
Emotion work and the triple shift
'emotion work' - feminists say women are responsible to perform this.
Responsible for managing emotions and feeling of family members
Duncombe and Marsden (1995):
Women have to perform a 'triple shift' = housework, paid work, emotion work