Chapter 10: Solving Problems in Groups and Teams (When and why (When? (…
Chapter 10: Solving Problems in Groups and Teams
When and why
Teams and groups have more resources than individuals
Text example: Four people are stronger than one
Accuracy: teams have a greater likelihood of catching errors
In my life: math this quarter
Commitment: groups have higher commitment to caring out solutions they generate
Text example: students are more willing to follow along with rules they helped create
Diversity: working with others allows us to consider approaches to solutions we might not think of otherwise.
Beyond the capacity of one person
More than one decision or solution?
Potential for disagreement?
Setting the stage for problem solving
Basic skills: members feel good about each other, and have mutual respect
Cohesiveness: the degree to which members feel connected with and committed to their group.
Text example: Harry Potter, Ron , Hermione👱👱👩
Shared or compatible goals
Progress toward goals
Shared norms and values
Lack of precived threat between members
Interdependence of members
Threat from outside group
Mutual attraction or friendship
Shared group experiences
Cohesion is incredibly important to the functioning on a group
Stages of problem solving
Orientation stage: members approach the problem and one another tentatively. Rather than state their own position clearly they tested ideas cautiously and politely
Text example: calm before the storm
Conflict stage: members take strong positions and defend them against those who oppose their viewpoints. Coalitions are likely to form and the discussion may become polarized.
Emergence stage: one idea might emerge as the best one or the group may combined the best parts of several plans into a new solution.
Reinforcement stage: at this point not only the members except for the groups decision, they endorse it. If a member does not agree with the idea they still support it.
Strategies and formats
Breakout groups: subgroups consisting of generally 5-7 members simultaneously address in issue and then report back to the group at large.
Problem senses: each member uses a separate card to list their ideas, then a leader collects all the cards and reads them to the group one by one making the ideas visible to everybody
Focus group: a group that decides how the wider world may react to ideas 💡
Example: many corporations have these like amazon
Parliamentary procedure: a session that uses specific rules about how topics may be discussed and how decisions may be made. 🛎
Panel discussion: a problem-solving format in which participants talk over the topic informally as the would in a ordinary conversation.
Example: scientific research being presented
Symposium: for dispense divide the topic in a manner that allows each member to deliver in-depth information without interruption. This does not lead to group discussion and to be effective must be followed by a give and take open discussion
Forum: alows nonmembers to add their opinions to the groups deliberation before the group makes decision.
In my life: the beginning of a city council meeting
Dialogue: dialogue is a process in which people let go of the notion that their ideas or so. Others and instead try to understand issue from many perspectives.
Text Example: A form on immunization.
Online communication can be challenging because people don't give the same amount of information they normally would
Approaches and stages
Identify the problem: sometimes the groups problem is easy to identify and sometimes it is more difficult.
Analyze the problem:
Word the problem as a open broad question
Identify criteria for success
Gather releveant information
Identity supporting and restraining forces
My life: this failing could look like failing to decide what the problem is you're dealing with is that's coming up with the wrong solution
Develop creative solutions:
Brain storm ( no idea is bad, more ideas better)
Nominal group technique- each member works alone to develop a list of possible solutions then round robin style shares out ideas, questions will be asked to clarify, each member privately ranks their preferred solution, free discussion
In my life: this failing could look like coming up with no ideas or hardly any
Evaluate possible solutions:
Will this produce the desired changes?
Can the proposed idea be implemented by the group?
does the proposal contain any serious disadvantages?
In my life: the crashed in the desert 🌵 activity we evaluated the impact each item would have on us
Implement the plan:
Identify specific tasks to be accomplished
determain necessary resources.
Define individual responsibilities
Provide for emergencies
In my life the was use when we put the composting program in pace
Follow up on solution:
Meet periodically to evaluate progress
Revise the groups approach as needed
In my life: family therapy check ups
Desision making methods
Consensus: consensus occurs when all members of a group support decision
In my life: we use this today in the tower activity to decide when to use tape
Majority control: when more than half of the people in the group support her decision
Expert opinion: someone in the group is defined as an expert and will be given the power to make decisions
Text example: taking the doctors advice in a medical situation
Minority control: a few member of the group decides
Text example: a committee
Authority rule: one person makes the decision
Text example: a dictatorship
Overcoming dangers in group discussions
Information under load: the group has lack of information necessary to operate effectively
In my life: trying to make a presentation on something that no one has done the research on
Information overload: this occurs when the Group has too much information for too much complex information to manage
Text example: having an entire library on a topic that you're researching
Unequal participation: some people are contributing more than others
Example: the text says that people that drop out of groups are more likely not to participate beforehand
Pressure to conform: there is a tendency for groups to follow the crowd