Analyzing Research Literature (Deductive (epistemology: single objective…
Analyzing Research Literature
QUANTITATIVE - starts with question (hypothesis). Look for statistics, random sampling, large samples, objective scoring.
EXPERIMENTAL (RANDOMIZATION) - CAN DETERMINE CAUSE - ASSIGNS EXPOSURE)
true experiment - random assignment of participants (ENSURES CAUSE & EFFECT BY ISOLATING VARIABLES & REDUCING ERROR POTENTIAL)
Between Group (pre-test / post test)
Within Group (cross-over, repeat test)
practice effect (repeated doing causes change)
carryover effect (earlier treatment affects later)
CAUSAL COMPARATIVE (AKA QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL) (should note this as prone to causal link errors) - Associations between variables. The cause or consequence of differences that already exist. (2 or more groups and ONLY one variable). NON RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIALS
CASE CONTROL (2 groups with different outcomes - observational b/c look at the possible cause of difference between groups) (no exposure, observational) - Start with outcomes to try to find possible exposures.
COHORT (longitudinal study - risk factor studies, shared characteristic. (No exposure, observational) - start with exposures to see possible outcomes.
Retrospective OR Prospective
Case Report / Case Series (Describes & explains individual unique case in a story)
SINGLE SUBJECT DESIGN / Single Case Design (subject serves as his/her own control). Behavior change in individual or small group. PROBLEM - can't generalize.
CROSS-SECTIONAL (observational / no exposure)- group gets exposure & outcome at same time.. Snapshot in time.
CORRELATIONAL (1 group multiple variables)
DESCRIPTIVE (statistical census - current status of variable)
QUALITATIVE - starts with general problem. Look for purposeful sample, generated questions, small samples, unstructured measures, intensive & in-depth, results in words not statistics.
LIFE HISTORY: chronologic, possibly retrospective reconstruction of a life by the individual or other significant relation. Meaning of life in context of life experiences.
NARRATIVE: derive meaning of person's experience by analyzing their stories. Analysis through questioning. Not linear.
ETHNOGRAPHY: extended study of organization or culture. Multi-data source, collected in the field. Analysis of meanings and application to broader scale.
PHENEMOLOGY: meaning of lived experience through narrative. No analysis. Just a recording or capture of experience at the individual level.
GROUNDED THEORY: development of theory from data. Theoretical sampling, abductive thinking, Data collection & analysis occur simultaneously.
Participatory Action Research: research in community focusing on participation and action.Collective inquiry. Occupational justice. People who form the design are they ones who experienced it. Participatory action wants to change the community.
MIXED METHOD occurs when types are combined
Reliability (should be noted for quality)
internal consistency reliability
Cronbach's alpha (0.00-1.00) - above .75 are good
construct validity: extent it measure theoretical concepts you assume it measures.
content validity: what you measure is actually what supposed to be measuring. Is the content accurate?
correlation co-efficient (r= >.30 are good))
predictive criterion related validity
measure is related to outcome
Internal validity (cause & effect accuracy) vs. External validity (generalized to greater population)
epistemology: single objective reality
purpose: cause & effect, predict, explain, connect/correlate, describe, test theory
format: independent, gathering separate, analysis
investigator: not involved / neutral
epistemology: Multiple realities
purpose: reveal complexities, explore, understand, uncover meaning, generate theory, phenomena, unknown
format: interdependent, ongoing, dynamic data gathering & analysis
systematic: every "n"th person
cluster: subgroups as a whole are randomly selected
Simple random: drawing from a hat
stratified: random drawing of people from within subgroups
Non-probability Sampling - used for either qualitative or quantitative
Snowball: the closest bring their friends
Purposive: intentional selection
Convenience: whoever is closest
Quota: need a certain number to work