Reflection: My main reaction to this study was that I was not at all surprised by the results. However, it did give me some validation that some of my practices while a middle school Spanish teacher were sound. One way I visually integrated meaning/information for learners was within my Total Physical Response Storytelling instructional segments. Each day, I would introduce 3-4 new words/phrases. Actions/verbs were always written in red marker, nouns/phrases in blue, and adjectives in green. This was the standard for the year, such that with each lesson, the students could easily digest both the meaning through the physical response, and the part of speech through the color coding.