4.1 Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange
The Western and Eastern Hemispheres were able to interact due to new seafaring technologies after the 1500's
Germs spread between the eastern and western hemispheres, destroying the Native American population (Ex. Smallpox, Measles and Influenza)
Animals, and crops spread between the Eastern and Western Hemisphere, leading to more stable foodstuffs for many peoples
Technological developments developed in Western Europe, Asia, and the Islamic world, including the astrolabe, and caravels (seafaring ships)
Admiral Zheng He went on voyages sponsored by the Chinese government to discover new peoples to trade with, and new areas to use for access to resources
While Asian countries interacted more and more with Western European countries they were still quite withdrawn from Western European interaction
An increase in colonization occurred due to the massive economical boost from mercantilism, mainly by Western European nations
New Global trade networks developed after the 1500's due to the newly found contacts
New Regional Networks appeared, and previous ones increased in strength
Disruption of economy in the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Sahara, and Eurasia
Silver became the main source of currency, especially in Spanish colonies, due to their massive silver mines located in South America
Joint Stock Companies developed in correlation with the rise of Mercantilism, leading to the prospering of Western European countries
A spread of culture, and religion resulted from the new interactions between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
The movement of people as slaves, mainly Africans, resulted in cultural syncretism between slaves, and their masters
The spread of religions led to reform, and modification of religions like the protestant reformation and the spread of Islam into more areas in Asia and Africa
A greater understanding of wind, and ocean currents emerged, and there were more intellectuals in the world; especially in Western European
The merchant class became larger, and much wealthier with the introduction of a large global trade network
An increase of the visual arts occurred in Western European Nations due to their wealthier populations, ultimately funded by income generated by mercantilism
An increase in syncretic arts occurred, and an increase in the production of unique art forms specific to certain regions/nations
4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
Rulers used religious ideas to legitimize their rule for example the Europeans notions of divine rights.
Visual displays also helped legitimize and support the rulers
European empires in the Americas moved more quickly to settlement and territorial control responding to local demographic and commercial conditions
Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites as well as the development of military professionals became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their population and resources.
Rulers used public displays of art and architecture to legitimize their power.
Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres.
Europeans established new trading post empires in Africa and Asia which provided profitable for the rulers and merchants involved in the new global trade networks.
States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that both utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to change the authority of the state.
Rulers used tribute collection and tax farming to generate revenue for territorial expansion
People started to get more right and more abilities to do more things.
4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production
Agents of European powers moved into trade networks around the world.
Merchants social status tended to rise in various states
Leaders made sure their government was well run by the recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites and as well as the development of military professionals.
Imperial conquest and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites.
There were new innovations that made agriculture expand.
Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred including the demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the slave trade
The demographic changes in Africa resulted in new ethic and racial classifications such as the Mestizo, Mulatto and the Creole
A surge in agriculture productivity resulted from new methods in crop and field rotation and the introduction of new crops
Pastoral labor intensified in many regions such as the cotton textile production in India or the Silk textile production in China
The growth of plantation economy increased the demand of slaves