ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND PART 3 (WHY PHILIP II LAUNCHED SPANISH ARMADA (philip…
ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND PART 3
CATHOLIC PRIESTS IN ENGLAND.
1574, priests were smuggled into England
1581, parliament passed two laws that said it was treason to convert people to catholicism and that recusants would be fined £20 which was a huge amount of money.
THROCKMORTON PLOT (1583)
PLAN for French duke of guise (cousins of mqs) to free Mary and overthrow Elizabeth.
Philip would provide finance
FRANCIS THROCKMORTON would act as a go between.
however sir Francis walsingham uncovered plot
throckmortans papers included a list of catholic sympathisers, suggesting England should be greatly worried over catholics.
life became harder for catholics.
up to 11,000 catholics were imprisoned.
BABINGTON PLOT (1586)
DUKE OF GUISE WOULD INVADE England with 60,000 men and put Mary on throne.
babington sent Mary plot but letters were intercepted by sir FRANCIS WALSINGHAM.
feb 1587, Elizabeth signed death warrant for Mary as there had been to many plots surrounding her involvement.
government became determined to crush catholics. 300 recusants In London executed.
WHY WAS MARY EXECUTED AFTER ALL THIS TIME???
Because in 1585, The act for the preservation of the Queen's safety was passed which stated:
if Elizabeth assasinated, MQS was to be barred from succession,
2) any action against MQS can
only take place with sufficient evidence.
SIGNIFICANCE OF HER EXECUTION (1587)
Removed an important threat to E
the execution gave Philip ii another reason to act against ELIZABETH as Mary had left her claim to English throne to a PHILIP.
WALSINGHAM SPY NETWORK
1573, walsingham became ELIZABETHS secretary of state and developed a network of spies.
JOHN HART 1581
NEW WORLD AND FOREIGN POLICY AIMS
SPANISH CONTORLLED LOTS OF NEW WORLD
AND ENGLANDS MAIN ROUTE INTO EUROPEAN MARKETS WAS THROUGH NETHERLANDS WHICH WAS CONTROLLED BY SPAIN.
1572, E hired drake as privateer and he went to Panama where he captured £40,000 of Spanish silver
November 1577, Drake went to new world to bring back gold, silver and spices.
She also issued Drake to secretly attack Spanish colonies
DRAKE WENT AND CIRCUMNAVIGATED WORLD BETWEEN 1577- 1580.
First Englishman to do so
she publicly nighted him 1581 I think
showed England did not accept Spanish ownership of new world.
only one sailor had successfully circumnavigated globe so England had national hero
Drake boosted crown finances.
PUBLIC KNIGHTING SENT A MESSAFE OF DEFIANCE TO SPAIN
april 1587, drake attacked Cadiz harbour
WHY PHILIP II LAUNCHED SPANISH ARMADA
philip ii wanted to get rid of protestants
papacy wants Elizabeth overthrown and Philip ii offered award for successful invasion.
Drakes actions in new world
Elizabeth supported Dutch rebels
treaty of joinville, Spain and France allies against protestantism.
treaty of nonsuch 1585
Spain acquired Portugal
duke of parma success in Netherlands
elizabeths hesitation in dutch revolt showed English as weak.
spanish had 19,000 soldiers compared to 14,000 from ENGLAND
arcade was a fleet of 130 ships
philip demanded DUKE OF MEDINA SIDONIA to lead the Armada.
philips plan was for the ARMADA TO meet DUKE OF PARMA'S ARMY at Dunkirk.
Army set out on MAY 1588 but was delayed for several
The Armada sailed up the Chanel in July in a crescent formation which was hard for the English to break and only 2 spanish ships were lost
Then Medina Sidonia was ready to meet Duke of Parma at Calais and get troops. HOWEVER DUKE OF PARMA AND MEN WERE BEING BLOCKADED BY DUTCH AND DIDNT ARRIVE ON TIME.
IN MIDDLE OF NIGHT, English sent 8 fireships among Spanish anchored at CALAIS.
13 July 1558- battle of Gravelines where 5 Spanish ships sunk.
MS called off the attack and return to Spain. Less than half fleet made it back to Spain.
WHY ARMADA FAILED
English had good ship building and new ones (galleons) built from 1570s.
Their cannons could be reloaded more quickly.
English had better tactics (they fire broadsides which sink the ships)
rotten food in barrels
Spains men lacked experience wheres English fleet was v experienced.
MESsage was late to parma that Spanish were on channel so they went at calais when MD was
Parma failed to capture OSTEND port which was a deep water port where ARMADA could safely anchor.
The death of Spains leading admiral led to the inexperienced MD being hired
ARMADA SLOWED DOWN by bad weather and by time ENGLISH met Spanish, they had been at sea for 10 weeks already.
24 August 1588, terrible storm smashed and sank some of ARMADA!! Also weather made it impossible to return to Gravelines.