CLASSIC STUDY; Cognitive Baddeley (1966b) (PROCEDURE; (EXPERIMENT 3; 4…
CLASSIC STUDY; Cognitive Baddeley (1966b)
To investigate the influence of acoustic and semantic word similarity on learning and recall in STM and LTM
A lab experiment designed to test recall of acoustically and semantically similar and dissimilar word lists.
EXPERIMENT 3; 4 lists of 10 words
List A; Acoustically similar words. E.g. Man, can, cat, map, etc
List B; Acoustically dissimilar words. E.g. Pit, few, cow, mat, etc
List C; Semantically similar words. E.g. Great, large, big, broad etc.
List D; Semantically dissimilar words. E.g. Good, huge, deep, late, etc.
Ppts were men and women from the Applied Psychology Research unit (APRU), and were assigned ONE of the four conditions.
Each word list was presented by a projector. One word every 3 seconds in the correct order. After the presentation ppts were required to complete 6 tasks (memory of digits). They were then asked to recall the word list in one minute in the correct SEQUENCE ORDER. The words from the lists were in random order around the room. After learning trails there was a 15 min interference task and then ppts were given a retest on word list sequence.
Recall of acoustically similar words was worse then dissimilar words during the initial phase of learning. Recall of the semantically similar and dissimilar words wasn't significant. Suggests, acoustic encoding was initially difficult, but didn't effect LTM recall.
Ppts found it more difficult to recall list 1 suggests STM is largely acoustic, so acoustically similar words are more difficult to encode. Later retest recall of list three was impaired compared to all other lists because they were semantically similar, suggesting LTM encodes semantically (largely).
researchers argue in order to understand memory they need to remove the context in which normal memory is used and simplify it to isolate the aspects of memory we're concerned with.
Not an everyday task in memory, so the ability to generalise findings into everyday context.