Hormones - The Endocrine System (Different glands and functions (The…
Hormones - The Endocrine System
Hormones are chemical messengers. They are made in glands and travel around the body in our blood.
Different glands and functions
The Pancreas & Liver: The pancreas and liver work as a team when it comes to blood sugar levels (glucose levels).
High Blood Sugar Levels: If the blood sugar levels are high the pancreas detects it and releases a messenger hormone called insulin. Insulin then stimulates the liver to convert glucose (sugar) into glycogen and store it. Therefore the blood sugar levels fall.
Low Blood Sugar Levels: If the blood sugar levels are low the pancreas detects it and releases a messenger hormone called glucagon. Glucagon stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose and release it. Therefore the blood sugar levels then rise.
The Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland produces many hormones that regulate the body conditions. It is sometimes called the 'master gland' because these hormones act on other glands, directing them to release hormones that bring about change.
Ovaries - females only: The ovaries produce oestrogen, which is involved in the menstrual cycle.
Testes - males only: The testes produce testosterone, which controls puberty and sperm production.
Thyroid: This produces thyroxine, which is involved in regulating things like the rate of metabolism, heart rate and temperature.
Adrenal Gland: This produces adrenaline, which is used to prepare the body for a 'fight or flight' response.
The Pancreas: This produces insulin, which is used to regulate the blood glucose level.
The Menstrual Cycle
The menstrual cycle is a 28 day cycle in a woman, it is controlled by hormones.
Day 1: The Pituitary Gland releases FSH (egg making hormone). Menstruation (period) begins.
Days 1-5: Menstruation continues in the uterus. New egg starts to ripen in the ovary.
Days 5-14: Menstruation is finished. The ripening egg starts to make its own hormone called oestrogen. This makes a new lining start to grow in the uterus.
Oestrogen inhibits FSH
Day 14: Ovulation - the egg is released into the fallopian tube due to a third hormone called LH (also made in the pituitary gland).
Days 14-17: Egg travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus. The Egg dies after 3 days unless fertilised.
Days 17-28: The dead egg and old uterus lining remain. By the end of day 28 they start to pass out of the body. Menstruation starts.
The Menstrual Cycle Hormones:
FSH - pituitary gland - stimulates an egg to mature in the ovary.
Oestrogen - ovaries - stimulates the lining of the womb to regrow and develop.
Oestrogen - ovaries - inhibits the release of FSH.
Oestrogen - ovaries - stimulates the release of LH.
LH - pituitary gland - stimulates ovulation
Hormones & Puberty
Female - Oestrogen:
Hips widen, Breasts develop, Body hair, Menstrual cycle, Genitals mature.
Male - Testosterone:
Voice deepens, Muscle growth, Facial/body hair, Fertile - produce sperm, Genitals mature.
Fertility & Prevention methods
Failure to Ovulate: take FSH/LH hormones
IVF - in vitro fertilisation: Mixing woman's eggs and men's sperm together in a dish.
1) The woman is injected with FSH and LH to stimulate growth and production of eggs.
2) When the eggs are ready they extracted from the ovary and put into a glass dish.
3) The man's sperm is then added into the dish to fertilise the eggs.
4) Once fertilised the eggs start mitosis and form embryos.
5) When the embryos are big enough they are inserted into the woman's womb.
Contraception: Contraception is the deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy.
Types of Contraception: Cap, Combined pill, Condom, Implant, Male steralisation
Diabetes: Diabetes is a condition that affects your ability to control your blood sugar level.
Type 1 Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes is where the pancreas produces little or no insulin. This means a person's blood glucose level can rise to a level that can kill them.
Treatment: People with Type 1 need INSULIN THERAPY: this usually involves several injections of insulin throughout the day, most likely at mealtimes. This makes sure that glucose is removed from the blood quickly once the food has been digested, stopping the level getting too high.
Type 2 Diabetes: