Chemistry (Chapter 3 - Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter (Atomic Number…
Chapter 3 - Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other properties.
All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
Discovery of the Electron
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
The discovery of the first subatomic particle resulted from investigations that looked into the relationship between electricity and matter.
- the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom in that element.
- 6.022 x 10^23 ; is the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance. This can be used as a conversion factor in finding the number of atoms of an element.
- atoms of the same element that have different masses.
Chapter 4 - Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
- all of the forms of electromagnetic radiation form the electromagnetic spectrum.
Properties of light
-- Before 1900, scientist thought light behaved solely as a wave.
The Hydrogen-Atom Line-Emission Spectrum
refers to the lowest energy state of an atom.
The state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state is called the
- Danish physicist that solved the 'puzzle' of the hydrogen atom in 1913.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
- states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle.
- specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.
Principal Quantum Number
- symbolized by 'n', indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
- symbolized by 'l', indicates the shape of the orbital.
Magnetic Quantum Number
- symbolized by 'm', indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.
Spin Quantum Number
- has only two possible values, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.
- the arrangement of electrons in an atom.
chapter 8- chemical equations and reactions
chemical equation- represents with symbols and formulas the identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
coefficient- is a small whole number that appears in front of a formula
word equation-an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical equation are represented
formula equation -represents the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by the their symbols or formulas.
composition reaction-two or more substances combined to form a new compound.
single replacement-one element replaces a similiar element in a compound
double replacement-the ions of two compounds exchange places in a aqueous solution to form two new compounds.
combustion reaction- a substance combines with oxygen releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat
decomposition reaction-a single compound undergoes a reaction that produces two or more simpler substances
Chapter 5 - The Periodic Law
- Russian chemist; noticed that when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain similarities in their chemical properties occurred at regular intervals.
Periods and Blocks of the Periodic Table
- made up of chemically reactive metals, and are the first two groups on the periodic table - the alkali metals, and the alkaline earth metals.
- This block consists of groups 3 - 12. These are often referred to as the
- Made up of groups 13 - 18, except for helium. The p-block elements together with the s-block elements are called
- These elements are called the
- the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element.
A positive ion is known as a
A negative ion is also known as an
Chapter 6 - Chemical Bonding
Types of Bonds
result from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. Bonding usually falls between the two extremes, depending on how strongly the atoms of each element attract electrons.
result from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. There are two types of covalent bonds, polar and non-polar.
Non-polar covalent bond
- a bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge.
Polar covalent bond
- the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for shared electrons.
is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together.
is a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules is called a
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound.
The Octet Rule
- rule that applies to most atoms, states that each atom in a chemical compound must have eight or an 'octet' of electrons in its outermost electron shell.
- an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons are represented by dots placed around the element's symbol.
Chapter 7 - Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds
indicates the relative number of aroms of each kind in a chemical compound.
are ions formed from a single atom. These ions are named by dropping the ending of an element, and simply adding
to the root name.
Binary Ionic Compounds
- compounds composed of two different elements. In this compound, the total numbers of positive and negative charges must be equal.
The naming system, or
for these compounds is different, the name of the cation is provided first, followed along by the name of the anion.
for naming these compounds -
The stock system of nomenclature is used when transition metals such as iron, which forms two or more cations with different charges, react with another element. This system uses a Roman numeral to indicate the ion's charge; the numeral is placed in parentheses right after the metal name.
- a number assigned to an element in chemical combination that represents the number of electrons lost (or gained) by an atom of that element in the compound.
Chapter 2 - Scientific Method
SI base units
SI base unit prefixes
length - meter
mass - kilogram
time - second
temperature - Kelvin
amount of substance - mole
electric current - ampere
luminous intensity - candela
- solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and forming theories that are supported by data.
- relating to, measuring , or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity.
- measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality.