Environmental crime prevention (Wilson and Kelling ('broken…
Environmental crime prevention
Wilson and Kelling
'broken windows' to stand for all the various signs of disorder and lack of concern for others that are found in some neighbourhoods.
This includes undue noise, graffiti, begging, dog fouling, littering, vandalism and so on. Argue leaving broken windows unprepared,Sends out no one cares
In some neighbourhoods, there is an absence of both formal social control (police) and informal control (the community). Police only care for serious crime and community feel powerless
Without remedial action, the situation deteriorates, tipping the neighbourhood into a spiral of decline. Respectable people move out and the area becomes a magnet.
Zero tolerance policing
Absence of controls leads to crime. Their solution is to crack down on any disorder, using a twofold strategy.
First an environmental improvement strategy; any broken window must be repaired immediately, abandoned cars towed without delay otherwise more will follow.
Police must adopt a zero tolerance policing strategy. Instead of merely reacting to crime, must proactively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder. This will halt neighbourhood decline.
'Clean Car Program' instituted on the subway, cars taken out of service immediately if they had any graffiti on them only returning once clean. This removed graffiti subway
Crackdown on 'squeegee merchants' discovered that many had outstanding warrants for violent and property crimes.1933 and 96 was significant fall in crime in the city
Not clear how far zero tolerance was the cause of improvements
NYPD benefited from 7,000 extra officers
General decline in crime rate in major US cities at the time- including ones where police did not adopt a zero tolerance policy
Decline in the availability of crack cocaine
Social and community crime prevention
Wilson and Kelling recognition of the role of community and informal controls preventing crime, main emphasis of policies based on their ideas has been in policing
Social and community prevention strategies place the emphasis firmly on the potential offender and their social context. To remove conditions that predispose individuals
These are longer-term strategies, since they attempt to tackle the root causes of offending, rather than simply removing opportunities for crime
Because of crime are often rooted in social conditions such as poverty, unemployment and poor housing, more general social reform programmes addressing these issues
Perry pre-school project
Project for disadvantaged black children in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Experimental group of 3-4 years old offered intellectual programme.
Longitude study followed children's subsequent progress. Showed striking differences with a control group. Had significant fewer lifetime arrests for violent, drug crime.