Reading Map #5 - Pauline Muljana (Human error vs bad design (Norman, 2013,…
Reading Map #5 - Pauline Muljana
Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller (1999)
How does instructional modality effect cognitive load associated with split-attention?
Visual + audio text
Animated components of diagram with written explanation and audio via headset
Animated components of diagram without written explanation but with audio.
Lower number of reattempts, lower subject rating of cognitive load, and higher test performance scores
However, if the audio component is too complex, it will overload working memory. Alternatively, consider visual text.
Animated components of diagram with written explanation without audio
Keypoint (p. 368)
Multiple sources and redundant information can cause cognitive overload
Can modality effect be used to circumvent the problems associated with split-attention?
Color-coded format (color-coding text & diagram)
Lower subject rating of cognitive load and higher test performance scores
Keypoints (Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller; 1999; p.369)
Textual materials are better presented in both auditory and written
If textual materials need to be presented in written, use appropriate markers or guides such as color-coding
Textual materials are better presented in auditory than written
Human error vs bad design (Norman, 2013, pp. 162-216)
Understanding why three is error
Find the root of the cause, not just the cause.
Don't stop just because human error is the verdict!!!
Keep asking why until finding an answer.
Designs should "focus upon the requirements of people" (Norman, 2013, p. 168)
However, we are aware that some human errors are caused by deliberate violations.
Two types of errors
Slips (usually done by experts)
When someone wants to execute an particular action but ends up doing something else.
Someone fills up a bottle with water from a jug and then close the jug with the bottle lid.
Someone forgets to unplug hair straightener.
Mistakes (usually done by novices)
When a wrong plan is created of wrong goal is achieved
Student completed a paper assignment but completely out of context.
Student failed to submit an assignment because forgot the due date.
Classifications of slips
Executing the most recently/frequently actions, instead of intended action.
Designers should not employ procedures with identical steps and then followed by different steps.
Happens when item is similar to the target
Controls and displays for different purposes should be obviously different.
Caused by memory failures
Designers should minimize complex steps and provide reminders regarding the steps,
Happens when an item has multiple modes and the controls have different meaning.
Designers should avoid multiple modes. If not possible, make each mode visible.
Classification of mistakes
Occurs when the knowledge to assess the situation is absent
Designers should provide appropriate conceptual model. Otherwise, provide manuals.
Due to memory failures
Designers should ensure all relevant information is available.
Occurs either when the situation is incorrectly interpreted and leads to wrong goal/plan and wrong rule, the rule is correct but the rule is not formulated properly due to incomplete knowledge, or the rule is correct but the outdome is not evaluated correctly.
Designers should provide guidance, ensuring current state is displayed in easy-to-understand format.
Social pressures can also be a cause of mistake.
Someone decided not to fix the situation because of a fear of being judged.
A way to reduce errors
Can collaborate with SMEs
Implementing error-reduction process
Toyota case study
Jidoka (automation with human touch)
Andon (to stop and alert) and then ask multiple why's
Adding simple fixtures until the function is correct
Combination of affordances, signifiers, mapping, constraints and forcing functions.
Analyze similar reports.
Adding constraints to block errors
Prevent actions that can lead to errors
To reverse the errors
Confirmation & error messages
To confirm that an action will be executed
Smartly confirm an action, giving warning when an action doesn't make sense
"Good design can prevent slips and mistakes" (Norman, 2013, p. 208)
Add layers of defense
Think of all possible factors that can lead to errors and design the device to be reliable. "Well-designed systems are resilient against failure (Norman, 2013, p. 208).
Taking the best out of both: precise machines and human creativity
Before designing a course, designers should learn about the learners'characteristics carefully. If the course is targeted for non-US learners, be knowledgeable about their culture. Be careful with using any symbol or icon for creating logo or banner. Be thoughtful when designing the navigation. Not everybody reads from left to right. It's also better to provide orientation or "Read Me First" instructions, explaining the navigation, etc.
To follow the lock-out concept, disable any tools that will not be used during course duration. This will also reduce potential confusion.
To follow the lock-in concept, "adaptive release" feature can be used, in which learners will not be able to go to the next module unless, let's say, the last assignment has been submitted.
A faculty friend with a specialty in human factors inspired me this idea. To apply "Jidoka" (automation with human touch), the assessment of lower level thinking can be "automatically" managed by using auto-grading tests. However, instructor should keep checking the learners' progress on this type of assessment. If necessary, employ "just-in-time" intervention, e.g. reaching out to struggling students to help identify any issue (andon/). Then, instructor can facilitate learning targeting higher-level thinking during class time. Also, course design is iterative and there is always room for improvement (poka-yoke).
Since learners are usually novices, they will make mistakes. Thus, course structure should be arranged in easy-to-navigate and logical formats. For assignment, provide clear instructions and rubric to help them be aware of their knowledge gap, and provide necessary reminder to prevent memory-lapse mistake.
We also have to keep in mind that learning from mistakes can make the learning process more meaningful.
To address semantic constraint, keep updating the materials to stay relevant. Additionally, use the most relevant topic as part of discussion, assignment or project. For example, the latest trending news can be used to spark discussion and encourage analytical and critical thinking. The rationale is "The meanings of today may not be the meanings of the future" (Norman, 2013, p. 130). In other words, what were meaningful back then may not be meaningful today.
When providing learning resources, keep in mind to stay relevant to avoid cognitive overload. If video resources are need, refer to Kalyuga's, Chandler's, and Sweller's findings.
Knowing what to do (Norman, 2013, pp. 123-161)
Allowable actions unanimously agreed by the society, but can change with time.
Conventions = cultural constraints
Designers should follow any changes in conventions.
Based on situational meaning to decide the actions, but can change with time: "The meanings of today may not be the meanings of the future" (Norman, 2013, p. 130).
Physical features of a product that limit the operation.
Relies upon the logical relationship between the layout and the actionable outcome. Natural mapping provides logical constraints.
Affordances + Signifiers + Constraints
Designers considering affordances, signifiers and contraints will likely produce better products.
Constraints can be used to "instruct" human what(not) actions can be executed
Lock-ins, to prevent operators to exit/complete the function.
Lock-outs, to prevent operators from "getting into" a function, usually for safety reason.
Interlocks, to prevent function in the case operator suddenly is not capable.
Sounds as signifiers
Sounds can be a form of feedback, to confirm the successful/non-successful actions.
Use it moderately. Otherwise, it'll be annoying.