Developmental Psychology Theorists
Trust vs. Mistrust
Age 0-1, Asks “is the world predictable and supportive, by the mother/primary caregiver
Autonomy vs. Shame
Age 2-3. Asks “am I self sufficient or must I rely on others?” “LET ME DO IT”, by both parents.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Age 3-6. Asks “ am I good or bad?; will I feel guilty for trying new things?” provided by the family unit
Industry vs. Inferiority
Age 7-12, Asks “am I successful or worthless? How can I function in comparison to others?”
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Age 12-18, asks “Who am I? What is my place in society?”
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Age 20-30, asks “Am I able to become close with others but still remain my sense of self?” Looks for reciprocated love from peers/family.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Age 30-50, asks “Am I able to give love and attention beyond myself? Have I nurtured the next generation?” often comes with mid-life crisis.
Integrity vs. Despair
Age 50+, asks “How do I deal with the end of my career? Am I still useful? How do I cope with loss?” Deals with satisfaction in life.
2-6 years. child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of logic
theory of mind
birth-2 years, know the world mostly in terms of sensory impressions and motor activities.
3. Concrete Operational
6-11, children gain mental operations to enable logic
4. Formal Operational
age 12+. people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
before age 9, focused on self interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain rewards
Early adolescence, focuses on caring for others and upholding laws and social rules just due to them being there.
Most never achieve, actions judged based on rights or from self defined ethical principles
easy to upset but easy to calm down, explore freely when caregiver present, child engages with strangers when parent is around and see immediate contact upon return
very hard to calm down, not very exploratory, even when with parent
child off in own world, does not get upset when leaving or coming back
both demanding and responsive to child, set rules but explain them, encourage openness and allow exceptions
Submit to child's desires, make few demands and have little punishment
set rules and expect obedience or punishment