The Design of Everday Things (Chapter 3) (Memory (Short-Term/Working VS.…
The Design of Everday Things (Chapter 3)
Manage to get by even without knowing how things may function.
"Only need to remember sufficient knowledge to let us get our tasks done" (Norman, 2013, pp. 78).
Precise behavior is to imprecise knowledge
Knowledge is in the head and in the world, great precision is not required, natural constraints exist in the world, knowledge of cultural constraints and conventions exists in the head (Norman, 2013, pp. 76).
Behavior is linked with knowledge - based on what is known helps determine behavior.
Must be interpreted as well as understood
Precise knowledge not normally needed - however, there are times when precision is necessary
Constraints directly affect memory - depending on the constraints and how much they impede on a person can affect how they are able to remember.
Technology has made memory weaker...instead of having to remember something, we can merely look it up.
Short-Term/Working VS. Long-Term
STM is memory of the present. Most recent information or what is currently being thought of (Norman, 2013, pp. 92).
Can hold roughly 5-7 memory items (lose focus and you'll forget).
LTM is memory of the past. Takes time and effort for memory to become "long-term" (Norman, 2013, pp. 93).
Rarely remember anything in its entirety, but rather in snippets.
Retrieval of this information is not automatic - sometimes it takes a trigger for someone to remember a piece of LTM information.
Remembering things or ideas that "have no underlying meaning or structure" (Norman, 2013, pp. 98).
Have an actual connection or something more meaningful.
Prospective Memory (Reminding)
Reminding is memory of the future - we remind ourselves to remember something later.
Poor mapping can lead to wrong decisions/choices.
Natural mapping is clear and easy to understand - relationship between two end points is easy to decipher.
Usability - best mapping makes something's usability higher.
Natural Mappings depend on culture, location, etc.
What is mapped one way for a specific culture may not be mapped the same for another.
"What is natural depends on point of view" (Norman, 2013, pp. 122).
People can adjust to other mappings, but confusion is going to take place.
Norman, D. A. (2013). The design of everyday things. New York: Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Books Group.