Management Learning to lead (i. Management Functions (Management Areas ( …
Learning to lead
i. Management Functions
:star: Process of getting things done, efficiently and effectively, through and with any people.
They direct the activities of other people in the organization.
Managers are usually classified as top, middle, or first-line managers.
The Functions of Management
2. Organizing & 3. Staffing
: resources and activities to achieve the organization's objectives
: the organization with qualified people
Organization, Staffing and Departmentalization 分部门组织经营法
Large and diversified companies like
have several options to structure their operations.
The Organizational Chart 组织结构图
is a visual representation of these structures.
The key is efficiency through a clearly defined grouping of logical units which clarify the flow of decision making.
Strong organizational structures will allow:
better control and monitoring of performances;
more efficient coordination.
Top managers recruited in struggling companies often shake things up by re-designing the structures.
e.g. GE company Organization Chart.
Some of the structural divisions are sometimes expected to behave as
Strategic Business Units (SBU's)
which are expected to almost operate as separate competing operations.
These SBU's may:
set separate targets;
report separate financial statements;
determine different structures.
e.g. Google owns: YouTube, Gmail, Google Maps, Android, Google Search Engine.
Research and Development Department
Stereo Equipment Division
Computer Electronics Division
Consumer Telecommunications Equipment Division
Industrial Telecommunications Equipment Division
Grouping of jobs into working units (departments, units, groups, divisions)
President International Operation
Pacific Basin Division
Latin American Division
Middle East Division
Centralization & Delegation
Level of Centralization
: authority is concentrated at the top level.
: decision-making authority is delegated as far down the chain of command as possible.
Delegation 分配任务、授权 of Authority
The assignment of direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate 下级 to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible.
Delegating is a required task of any manager.
It is wrong to assume that managers should do everything by themselves.
How to be a more effective delegator?
Trust your staff to be a good job.
Avoid seeking perfection.
Give effective job instructions.
Know what you want to achieve.
Follow up on progress.
Praise the efforts of your staff.
Don't wait to the last minute to delegate.
Ask questions, expect answers, assist employees.
Provide the resources you would provide if doing the assignment yourself.
Delegate to the lowest possible level.
Activities to achieve the organization's objectives
Strategies to grow and compete
Top managers must make important strategic decisions
These decisions will determine:
strategies to compete successfully;
strategies to grow their operations.
How can we COMPETE?
b) offer products with unique features
This is called "
e.g. Singapore Airlines
Making your product/service different from competitors
Product design (colours, features, etc.)
Higher quality (Singapore Airlines)
c) target a very small market.
This is called "
e.g First Air (Fly the Arctic)
Though this segment may be small, there should be less competition
You could raise prices
Pasteurized 巴氏消毒 goat milk for consumers allergic to cow milk
Kosher 犹太教 food (for religious laws)
a) lower our costs to lower our prices
This is called "Cost Leadership 成本领先战略"
e.g. Walmart, RyanAir (low cost)
This allows organization to "compete on price"
May require reaching more efficient production through
new technologies and/or materials
How can we GROW?
b) Diversity into new businesses
This options involve entering new business ventures.
Could be risky if company becomes too "spread out 分散".
e.g. Microsoft went from simply making software to making hardware (keyboards, mouse, joysticks, 操纵杆 etc), game consoles, 游戏平台 MP3 players, etc
: a firm adds new related products/services to its line.
: a firm adds new, and unrelated product/services.
e.g. YAMAHA, indigo v.s hmv.
c) Expand in other regions
This options involves entering new geographic markets.
This allows the company to offer the same product and services
e.g. Tim Horton's is expanding the United States
a) Concentrate on our current business
This options involve focusing the company on one product line or product.
This allows the company to focus its strengths.
e.g. Bombardier abandoned the ski-doo to concentrate on trains and planes. also called "
Market Penetration 市场渗透 = simply selling more of the same product
Buy other companies (integrate 合并，一体化)
This options involve purchasing other companies to:
enter new markets with same products.
offer new products or services.
take control of suppliers or distributors.
e.g. Microsoft bought Nokia
Two types of Integration
Vertical Integration 垂直整合: a company buys off its suppliers or its retailers.
owns its oil wells,油井 refines the oil,提炼石油 and sell gasoline 汽油 at its own roadside stations.
rigs 钻井 (drilling 钻) → refineries 提炼 (refining 提炼) → stores (retailing 零售)
Horizontal Integration 横向合并: a company buys off its competitors.
came to Canada, the surest way to compet
was to BUY them.
, two companies but one owner.
Why don't they just close them?
Cool People: Jean Coutu
Concentration: opened his first drugstore in Montreal in 1969. He now has close to 400.
Diversification: introduced new products (perfumes, groceries, etc.). Now almost a "dépanneur" 抢修人员.
Geographic Expansion: expanded into New Brunswick, Ontario and the US.
Horizontal Integration: acquired several local drugstores in Quebec and an entire chain in the US.
employees' activities toward achievement of objectives
Why do some employees seem motivated to perform and others seem content with perfunctory 敷衍的 execution? Is one born with an internal capacity to be motivated?
Essentially a motivated individual feels a
from his/her current situation and seeks to alleviate 缓解 this situation by doing something.
A manager must seek and understand these elements in order to identify the items which will lead to action.
Herzberg concluded that workers may fall into one of three categories:
Those that are dissatisfied and unmotivated
Those that are not dissatisfied
Those that are satisfied and motivated
Employees who claim to be either dissatisfied or not dissatisfied would invoke hygiene factors as the reason.
Employees who claim to be satisfied and motivated invoked the presence of motivators to explain their condition.
What makes Employees Motivated?
By simply providing hygiene factors (better pay and working conditions), managers do not get their employees to be satisfied.
It merely 仅仅 makes employees NOT DISSATISFIED.
In order to motivate employees, managers must provide motivator factors such as:
Recognition for their achievements.
Learning and growth opportunities.
Status (promotions, etc.)
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
In the 1960's, Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views about human nature, which he called Theory X and Theory Y.
The theory looks at how managers PERCEIVE their employees' motivation and this perception will, in turn, affect the way they behave towards them.
The key is for a manager is to be aware of our natural tendencies to treat people according to our perception of them.
When managers view their employees as lazy and incapable 不胜任的 of proactive 积极的 behavior the employees may act so. It becomes a self-fulfilling 本身自然会实现的 prophecy. 预言
Herzberg's Motivation-hygiene Theory
The psychologist, Frederick Herzberg wanted to answer the following question:"What do people want from their jobs?"
He identified factors present in the work environment which can lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
He categorized those factors:
: recognition, 赏识 autonomy, 自治 achievement, 成就 etc.
Hygiene 卫生学 factors
: the pay, the working conditions, the level of supervision, 监督 the company policies, etc.
John Stacey Adams, a behavioural psychologist, put forward his Equity Theory on job motivation in 1963.
According to Adams, employees are concerned with fairness with regards to what they put and bring into a job (their input) with the rewards they receive (the outputs).
Employees also compare their rewards (outputs) with those of other employees which they perceive to be their peers.
When they feel there exists a disparity 不一致 between inputs and outputs, they feel demotivated.
Essentially, employees are often more affected by their comparative rewards than they are with their absolute rewards.
"My boss gave me a 10% raise on Monday. I was ecstatic 欣喜若狂的 and so grateful until Wednesday. That's when I found out that my colleague got a 15% raise! So unfair!"
Reactions Toward Perceived Unfairness
When employees feel there is unfairness they may behave in the following manners:
They start complaining and become increasingly disgruntled 不满的
They stop putting in efforts and may even encourage their colleagues to do the same
They seek other jobs
They modify their behaviour to try to increase their reward
The first tool required to lead employees is communication as it pervades 渗透 everything a manager does.
A manager can't make a decision without information, which has to be communicated.
Once a decision is made, communication must again take place.
Good communication skills alone do not make a successful manager but ineffective communication skills lead to a stream of problems for the manager.
The Feedback Cycle
Good communication involves a Feedback Cycle whereby the receiver is given an opportunity to respond and/or confirm comprehension of the message.
Real communication should be a "two-way" affair and common understanding should be the goal.
All parties should be aware that "noise" will often interfere 干涉 in communication, thus hindering 阻碍 the communication loop. 循环
Some of the most meaningful communications are nonverbal.
Kinesics 动作神态学 (body language)
gestures,姿势 facial configurations, 构造 and other movements of the body.
Paralanguage 副语言 (verbal intonation)
the pitch, 音调 rate, 速度 tone, 语气 volume, 音量 and speaking pattern of one's voice.
The nonverbal component of communication may carry the greatest impact.
Techniques for Effective Communication
A few techniques may be used to overcome the communication obstacles.
Using simple language
: Managers must identify the appropriate 恰当的 times to use jargon 行业术语 versus 与...相比 using simpler words to ensure full comprehension.
: A common technique where the speaker makes sure to give his/her undivided attention to the receiver. This is done by avoiding any distraction, ensuring good eye contact and rephrasing the content of the message to make sure it is clear.
Keeping emotions in check
: Managers are aware of how emotions may run deep and cause a conversation to derail. 阻碍 It is sometimes a good idea to delay any confrontation 争论 to diffuse 扩散 initial 最初的 emotional tension. 紧张关系
: Managers should make sure that the communication loop is occurring by asking questions to make sure comprehension is happening. This should go beyond simply using, no and nodding.
Keeping it impersonal
: Communication should focus on issues and facts, not personality.
the organization's activities to keep it on course
The word control represents the act of verifying results
It entails having set prior SMART goals which can now be measured
The purpose is to determine success in attaining the goals but also in identifying any weaknesses which may have prevented reaching the set goals
The control process is a loop, in that new goals, loftier or more realistic, are constantly set and need to be measured repeatedly.
How Do You "Control"?
Set clear goals → Determine clear standards → Compare results with goals → Take corrective actions → Measure new results → Set clear goals
Forms of Control
2) Objective Control
3) Group Control
1) Bureaucratic 官僚主义 Control
This approach relies on a reward-punishment system which is administered by upper-level managers
It will typically be made up of several rules and regulations needing tob e administered closely
Close monitoring of hours worked (punch clock)
Minimum standards of production
Rules of conduct
This approach may be used in factories using assembly lines which may be easy to monitor.
4) Market Control
Control production, inventory and quality.
Plan and oversee financial resources.
Responsible for developing, pricing, promoting, and distributing goods and services to buyers.
Human Resources Manager
Hire, train, evaluate,and compensate 补偿 employees.
Design and implement 实施 systems organize information needed to make decisions.
7 Tips for Successful Leadership
Build effective and responsive interpersonal relationshop
iii. Management Skills